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PRACTICAL WELDING LETTER, Issue #003 -- How to Select Your Plasma Cutter
November 01, 2003
We hope you will find this Letter interesting and useful.
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Practical Issues, Creative Solutions
How to select your Plasma Cutter.

This publication brings to the readers practical answers
to welding problems in an informal setting designed to be
helpful and informative. We actively seek feedback to make
it ever more useful and up to date. We encourage you to
comment and to contribute your experience, if you think
it may be useful to your fellow readers.


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Date: November 2003 - Practical Welding Letter - Issue No. 03

------------------------TABLE of CONTENTS---------------------------

==> 1 - Introduction

==> 2 - Article: How to select your Plasma Cutter

==> 3 - How to do it well: Grinding a Plate

==> 4 - Filler Metal: Silver Brazing Alloy selection

==> 5 - In the press: Recent Welding and related Articles

==> 6 - Terms and Definitions Reminder

==> 7 - Article: Manufacturing problems

==> 8 - Site Updating

==> 9 - Readers' Contributions

==>10 - Explorations: beyond the Welder

==>11 - Correspondence: a few Comments

==>12 - Bulletin Board

==>Unsubscribe link



Welcome to this new issue of Practical Welding Letter.
We would like it to become an important and trusted reference
for our readers and a current source of information for solving
their welding problems.

In this issue we present a new article detailing the important
factors to consider when selecting a Plasma Cutter: while
it is true that this kind of equipment may solve economically
certain cutting problems with high productivity, it would be
a mistake to assume that it is the best solution forall and every

For the Filler metals paragraph we introduce Silver Brazing
alloys, with a short primer on their selection. In the section
on "How to do it well" we present what may happen when
grinding a plate and what to do to prevent that inconvenience.

Further down in this issue you will find an article explaining
why certain types of breakdown in manufacturing may occur out
of the blue and how to approach the search for causes and remedies.

As new readers subscribe almost daily we feel a mounting pressure
to fill this page with pertinent and helpful content.
We would like to see an increasing involvement of our readers
in establishing what really interests them. In fact one (!) of the
readers asked for some specific information that we hasten
to provide. (This question we take as a reader's Contribution!).

In the articles referred to in the section on the Press,
the case is made once more for the shortage of welding
professionals in all related jobs.
It again appears that welding can provide a promising career
for interested persons,provided they are willing to invest time
and energy in learning, practicing and staying up to date.
We present also a reference on modern developments in
radiography, which is an important method of Non Destructive
Inspection of Weldments.

We point out new pages added to the Site: we believe they may
interest our readers: let us know how you think this Letter
should be improved to help you even more:
Any questions or comments or feedback? Write them down and send them to us by e-mail. Click on the Contact Us button in the NavBar at top left of every website page ( We hope you will enjoy reading this Practical Welding Letter.


2 - How to select Your Plasma Cutter

Plasma cutters have an interesting history of development.
It is reported that the first applications of plasma devices to
cutting of metal happened more or less by chance, when it was
observed that by driving a wire electrode (of whatever material,
even mild steel) from a Gas Metal Arc Welding or plasma torch
into hard to cut materials (like aluminum and stainless), they were
easily cut through.

Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC) employs high-temperature, concentrated,
constricted arc between an electrode within the torch and the
material to be cut. The molten metal is continuously removed by
the jetlike gas stream blowing from the torch. Besides cutting, the
method permits also piercing, manual or machine shape cutting,
beveling, stack cutting and gauging.

How to evaluate Plasma Cutting Equipment.

Material: establish first if your cutting needs include stainless
steel and/or aluminum or not. If the answer is yes, then PAC
is most probably the solution, outperforming Oxyacetylene
cutting that cannot do the same without cumbersome additions.

Also other non conducting materials like rubber, plastic,
wood etc. can be Plasma Arc cut with a good quality surface to
thin tolerances. This is done with a minor electrical connection
change. Transferred arc occurs between electrode and electricity
conducting work, like metals, which becomes part of the circuit.
Non-transferred arc, occurring within the torch, excludes from
the circuit the non conducting material.

Thickness: PAC outperforms oxyacetylene only up to between one
and one and a half inch (25 to 38 mm) of mild steel (some put the
limit at half an inch or 13 mm, but that may be questionable): over
that dimension there is no claimed economical advantage using PAC.

For completeness one should also consider in the comparison the
newly available oxy-gasoline cutters which may have economic or
other practical advantages depending on the type of work at hand.
Consider the Maximum thickness you plan to cut.

Different models of Plasma Arc Cutters cater to different cutting
needs: inquire with manufacturers what they propose for your needs.
Also stack cutting may be easier with PAC because the plates
need not be tightly clamped together (as they need for OA).

Machine cutting, using the same machine for both processes
may result in productivity gains with PAC.
Furthermore there is no need to preheat the material, PAC cuts
a thinner kerf (the width of burnt material) and its effects
on the surrounding area are smaller.

Economy and Productivity...

...provide the complete answer as to which process is to be sought for.

Consumables: Of course OA (Oxyacetylene cutting) needs supply
of the consumable gases but does not need any electricity.
Conversely PAC needs electricity and compressed air (or other gas),
and sometimes water to cool down the underside and reduce fumes.
Sometimes a dual gas supply is used.

Electrode and nozzle are paired consumables which need periodic
changing into the PAC torch depending on intensity of usage.
Compressed air, when used, must be clean and dry:
check it by blowing a puff on clean white absorbent paper:
if it leaves a stain it is not clean enough. Some cutters
are provided with an air compressor, other machines require
the use of compressed air from a cylinder or from a separate
compressor fitted with filter and dryer.

Input power of the proposed unit (which voltage and if single-phase
or three-phase) should conform to your available power supply
from the grid.

Cutting speed is given in inches per minute (ipm)
or meters per minute (mpm).
But the given figures may be based on different standards of
measurement, so that you should preferably check by yourself
if the available speed of cut satisfies your needs.

Duty cycle, meaning the percentage of available cutting time,
at any given power level, out of any ten minutes period, should
be considered because it affects productivity: it is most
important when long cuts are planned.

Portability, that is the ease of transporting and
setting up in place the unit, is important for field work.
For fixed cutting in the shop it should be of no concern.

The way the arc is started in the selected piece of
equipment may be an important issue to study, if it is feared
that high frequency spark might interfere with surrounding
equipment like computers. Manufacturers developed different
means to circumvent this problem.

Safety is always important, with any kind of equipment:
the necessary precautions must be learnt, implemented
and enforced.

It is recommended that you check the performance of the
proposed cutter for yourself, to be satisfied that it meets your
needs, before committing to any purchase.

Is this article helpful to you?
Any questions or comments or feedback? Write them down and send them to us by e-mail. Click on the Contact Us button in the NavBar at top left of every website page (


3 - How to do it well: grinding and distortion

Q: A hardened steel plate was reasonably flat after heat treatment.
However, after grinding from one side as needed, it distorted
badly. What should be done to prevent deformation?

A: The hardened plate is subjected to internal stresses
in equilibrium, (tension and compression) symmetrically
distributed from both sides of the mid plane.
By grinding from one side only, equilibrium is disrupted.
The remaining stresses rearrange in such a way that produces
distortion. The remedy would be, if possible, to grind
symmetrically from both sides.


4 - Silver Alloy Brazing Filler Selection

The information assembled in this article is intended to provide
supplementary data to those presented in the page on Brazing
of the Welding Advisers Site.

Of the different filler brazing alloys available and suitable for many
purposes, we limit ourselves here only to those known as
Silver Brazing alloys, although, occasionally the silver content
may be less than that of copper or other element.

The selection of the most suitable alloy is subjected to evaluation
of several factors, like base materials, joint design, process to use
(Manual or machine torch, furnace, bath, induction, resistance
etc.), strength and temperature requirements, quantity and so on.

In general, the higher the silver content, the higher the cost
of the filler metal: however this is only one element summing up
to the total cost. It may happen that a more expensive material
permits a higher productivity process to be employed, providing
more economical an application.

When considering any brazing process one should be aware of the
stringent requirements that must be fulfilled in order to obtain
acceptable and repeatable results.
In particular one must provide the utmost cleanliness available
and one must pay due attention to the correct joint design and fit
of the assembly.

Successful furnace brazing is strongly dependent upon the quality
of the atmosphere, either vacuum, reducing gas (dry hydrogen)
or inert gas. In case of furnace brazing failure, the atmosphere
quality is the first item to be checked and cared for.

Brazing alloys melt generally within a range of temperatures.
The minimum temperature at which the alloy starts to melt is called
Solidus, and that where all of the alloy is liquid is called Liquidus.
These are physical temperatures that can be determined
scientifically with specially designed instrumentation at any
required degree of precision.

The above temperatures depend only on composition, i.e. on
the actual proportions of the different elements present and on
the level of impurities which are not generally reported.
As the materials are manufactured in batches starting from
different base metals, the actual temperatures found in a certain
batch of material may differ more or less from what reported in
the Table or in Specifications.

In general you will notice that certain alloys display a narrow
melting temperature range, while other ones quite a large
interval. A special case is that of BAg-8 which has range zero,
that is Solidus and Liquidus are at the same temperature.
This happens in the so called "Eutectics", meaning alloys that
behave like pure metals having a definite melting point
and not a melting range.

Alloys of narrow range are mostly used for capillary gaps,
where they can flow readily given the correct conditions.
Wide range alloys are more sluggish in their flow and they
are used sometimes to fill larger gaps that would not be
filled by other alloys.

One must take into account though that wide range alloys
have a tendency to separate in their basic components if
heated too slowly.
This characteristic is called "Liquation" and will interfere
with a correct brazing operation, hindering the normal flow.
Therefore it is always good practice to heat rapidly
through the melting range.

In practice the actual brazing temperature will be some
50 to 200 0F (30 to 110 0C) above the Liquidus, depending
on the process and the circumstances.

Different Silver alloys were formulated as filler metals
for Brazing. They are classified in AWS A5.8

Note: the following Table was prepared using
various sources and collecting as much information as was
available at the time of this writing. No claims of accuracy or
completeness are advanced here.
The user is always urged to verify independently
the data before applying them for practical use.
If necessary reference should be made to the original
AWS Specification.

AWS A5.8 Composition % Temperature F/C
ClassAg Cu Zn Cd Ni Other Solidus Liquidus
BAg-1 45 15 16 24 - - 1125/605 1145/620
BAg-1a 50 15.5 16.5 18 - - 1160/625 1175/635
BAg-2 35 26 21 18 - - 1125/605 1295/700
BAg-2a 30 27 23 20 - - 1125/605 1310/710
BAg-3 50 15.5 15.5 16 3 - 1170/630 1270/690
BAg-4 40 30 28 - 2 - 1240/670 1435/780
BAg-5 45 30 25 - - - 1250/675 1370/745
BAg-6 50 34 16 - - - 1270/690 1425/775
BAg-7 56 22 17 - - Sn=5 1145/620 1205/650
BAg-8 72 28 - - - - 1435/780 1435/780
BAg-8a 71.7 28 - - - Li=0.3 1435/780 1435/780
BAg-9 65 20 15 - - - 1240/670 1325/720
BAg-10 70 20 10 - - - 1275/690 1360/740
BAg-11 75 22 3 - - - 1365/740 1450/790
BAg-13 54 40 5 - 1 - 1340/725 1575/855
BAg-13a 56 42 - - 2 - 1420/770 1640/890
BAg-18 60 30 - - - Sn=10 1115/600 1325/720
BAg-19 92.5 Rem - - - Li=0.2 1400/760 1635/890
BAg-20 30 38 32 - - - 1250/675 1410/765
BAg-21 63 28.5 - - 2.5 Sn=6 1275/690 1475/800
BAg-22 49 16 23 - 4.5 Mn=7.5 1260/680 1290/700
BAg-23 85 - - - - Mn=15 1760/960 1780/970
BAg-24 50 20 28 - 2 - 1220/660 1305/705
BAg-26 25 38 33 - 2 Mn=2 1305/705 1475/800
BAg-27 25 35 26.5 13.5 - - 1125/605 1375/745
BAg-28 40 30 28 - - Sn=2 1200/650 1310/710
BAg-33 25 30 27.5 17.5 - - 1180/640 1320/715
BAg-34 38 32 28 - - Sn=2 1200/650 1330/720
BAg-35 35 32 33 17.5 - - 1265/685 1390/755
BAg-36 45 27 25 - - Sn=3 1185/640 1260/680
BAg-37 25 41 32 - - Sn=2 1270/690 1435/780

  • BAg-1 and
  • BAg-1a : General purpose brazing alloys for thin clearance joints. All metals.
  • BAg-2 and
  • BAg-2a : Economic general purpose low temperature brazing for variable gaps.
  • BAg-3 : Recommended for brazing stainless steel and tungsten carbide tips. Not for food.
  • BAg-4 : Recommended for brazing stainless steel and other metals. Food compatible.
  • BAg-5 : Suitable for pipe brazing, oil coolers, lamp assemblies. Cadmium free.
  • BAg-7 : Cadmium free low temperature brazing. Food compatible.
  • BAg-8 : For furnace brazing of silver, copper or nickel base alloys. Also ceramic to metal.
  • BAg-8a : For furnace brazing stainless in protective atmosphere.
  • BAg-9 and
  • BAg-10 : Color matching with silver ware. Used also for iron and nickel base.
  • BAg-13 : For furnace brazing stainless in protective atmosphere.
  • BAg-13a: For fluxless brazing stainless in dry hydrogen atmosphere. No zinc fumes.
  • BAg-18 : For vacuum applications and for contact with salt water.
  • BAg-19 : For fluxless furnace brazing of stainless steels.
  • BAg-20 : General purpose brazing filler for use on non ferrous metals.
  • BAg-21 : For brazing 400 series stainless steels, corrosion resistant.
  • BAg-22 : For brazing tungsten carbide tip. May be used for stainless and carbon steels.
  • BAg-23 : For applications on stainless steel requiring good strength at elevated temperature.
  • BAg-24 : Recommended for brazing stainless steel and other metals. Food compatible.
  • BAg-26 : Low silver, economic filler for steel and stainless steel.
  • BAg-27 : Low silver, economic filler for all metals with larger clearance.
  • BAg-28 : General purpose brazing filler for steel, copper and nickel alloys.
  • BAg-33 : For joining various materials with tight clearance.
  • BAg-34 : Recommended for low temperature brazing
    steels, copper and nickel alloys. Suitable for refrigeration and air conditioning equipment.
  • BAg-35 : Intermediate temperature filler, used with different materials.
  • BAg-36 : Low temperature filler, cadmium free. Limited silver content. For narrow gaps.
  • BAg-37 : Low silver, economic filler for steels and non ferrous alloys.

This Table and the ones published by Manufacturers of Filler
Brazing Alloys can help in selecting a suitable alloy for the job.
One should remember however that, if the assembly
is free of gross brazing defects, the influence of the selection
upon the mechanical strength at room temperature is minimal.
Joint design, base metal type and properties, and brazing
procedure are more important.

It is therefore essential, whenever planning a brazing operation
for a repetitive job, to spend the necessary time and effort
in optimizing the joint design.
Then a set of comparative trials should be run, to determine
which specific filler alloy will produce the most economical

Let us have your feedback, even if only a short one. Any questions or comments or feedback? Write them down and send them to us by e-mail. Click on the Contact Us button in the NavBar at top left of every website page (


5 - In the Press: Recent Welding and Related Articles

From AWS:

A Welding Journal Editorial makes the point of shortage of welding
workforce, for stressing the importance of education.
Reference is made to facilities existing to help welding students. See

A forecast on Welding's Future can be seen in


For a recent article on new Radiography Standards and the work
needed to prepare them, click on
then (in the left column) click on Standardization News
(October 2003) and finally on the second article titled:
Feature: Radiography Standards

From ASM International at
you can click on Magazines. In the new page click on
Advanced Materials and Processes and then in the left column
click on Free Trial Issues. If you get the October issue
you will find an article on Friction Stir Processing Technologies
that explains how this innovative method is now used
for different processes besides welding.
The Magazine is available online only to Members.


6 - Terms and Definitions Reminder

Do you remember what is...

Braze Welding:
A method of welding where a filler metal having melting
temperature above 450 C (840 F) and below that of the base
metals is used. The filler metal is not distributed in the joint by
capillary attraction (as opposed to brazing).
See the new Page in the Site by clicking on Braze Welding

In arc welding, a depression at the end of a weld bead
or in the molten weld pool. A crack may appear in the crater.

Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ):
That portion of the base metal, bordering on molten material,
that was not melted during brazing, cutting, or welding, but whose
properties and microstructure were changed by the heat.

Projection Welding:
A resistance welding process, that produces melting together
of metals with the heat from resistance to electric current flow,
through the parts held together by electrodes under pressure.
The resulting welds are localized at selected points by
projections, embossments, or intersections.

Would you want other terms being presented in next issues?
Any questions or comments or feedback? Write them down and send them to us by e-mail. Click on the Contact Us button in the NavBar at top left of every website page (


7 - How to handle Manufacturing problems

Once in a while a big crash occurs. It is unexpected, it is
unexplained and it must be dealt with in a hurry: it may
have occurred following "improvements" introduced to hasten

In most cases, if the failure is connected to materials
and/or processes, it is a good guess that an experienced
metallurgist could help.

What are the tools a metallurgist would use to investigate
the cause of the failure? His/her knowledge, a series of
observations and tests and a lot of common sense.

Common sense recommends not to change nonchalantly
whatever is performed with success. Common sense is not a
monopoly of metallurgists though: it will help anybody. In
any case, whether it is decided to turn to specialized help
or not, one needs to know the facts.

First of all, maximum available information must be
gathered and recorded. In this epoch of aggressive
competition and global supplies, strange unconsidered
switches may occur to save a few pennies, without giving a
thought to the consequences.

The material is probably the same as was used for years:
or is it? A thorough search at the stores will reveal if it was
substituted for a cheaper and questionable product, and if
the purchase order was clear and complete. The following
check list will help to single out details to be further
investigated against the data from "good" supplies:

Origin, vendor, manufacturer, standard name, proprietary
name, specifications, surface condition, heat treatment
condition, dimensions, tolerances, packaging, quantities,
delivery, material certificate, chemical composition,
mechanical and nondestructive testing.

This is not to say that any change is never to be done: but
the consequences should be considered, and tried out on a
limited production lot with due record of all significant
factors affecting the outcome. In the end the gain sought
for should be assessed and weighted against the modification
of processes, if any, and any other surplus cost. Any detail
is important and worth of being investigated.

TIP! - If the supplier provides professional advice (the
cost is included in the product!) it is certainly a good
idea to call on him/her for help. They will go out of
their way to assist: it is true that they will look hard for
any other possible cause that would free the material from
the suspicion of being at fault, but this attitude is very
welcome; they have no interest in extending an
unsatisfactory situation. And by helping to specify a
slightly modified material condition, if advisable, they may
add value to your product.

The failure itself has to be examined and documented.
Hardness testing, if available, is a simple and informative
nondestructive test which can add a lot to understanding the
case. Valuable information can be drawn from the aspect of
cracks or of deformed or fractured surfaces.

Nowadays it is easy to take a few shots with a digital
camera and send them over the Internet to anybody willing
and able to help. We do!

Just send an e-mail (with picture appended but without
attachments!) to with all the
information you can gather and we will examine in confidence
the evidence, providing you in a short time with our

Next the facilities and the process should be investigated.
The first questions involve the maintenance status of
equipment and accessories, and the last calibration of
measuring instrumentation. If any one of the items results
at less than optimum condition, then it should be fixed even
if no effect can be detected on the ill results obtained.

TIP! - If the equipment manufacturer's can be approached
with a query on possible malfunctions, he/she will gladly
try to assist, because they stand to gain in ideas for
future improvements. Their experience may be invaluable,
they may have already seen similar failures in the past and
they are likely to provide useful tips without giving out
names or proprietary knowledge.

Then comes the most delicate and painful part of the
investigation. To find out if anybody in the line, with the
best of intentions, to gain time or to save money, or rather
just out of laziness, cut some corners, changed the
approved procedure in one or more minor aspects, without a
thought to the consequences.

It is evident that there may be instances where the causes
are subtle and need more thorough and exact investigations
using the tools of modern metallurgical laboratories like
micro slices for optical or electron microscope or other
advanced pieces of equipment. (Usually Managers are
reluctant to spend money for a few suggestions: it is up to
them, of course, but they should appreciate the influence on
the bottom line.)

But many cases can be decided without a big budget, with a
little ingenuity, a little help, some experience and a lot
of common sense.


8 - Site Updating

We are proud to inform our readers that we released and
posted in the Site a new page on Braze-welding.
To reach it click on Braze Welding.

As advised elsewhere we also told the story of why and how
the Welding Advisers Site was conceived and built, in a
dedicated page on the Site. In retrospect it is amazing to
realize how easy it was, in spite of the hard (Do It Yourself)
work involved. See the story by clicking on "How I built this Site".

Apart from minor updates in a few pages, we added a
Disclaimer in the Home Page, to stress the fact that we
cannot take any responsibility for actions based on the
information we provide freely as a service to our readers.


9 - Readers' Contributions

Note: This section was initiated to provide a page for
original readers' Contributions regarding their experience
and achievements for fellow readers to read and enjoy. This
time, however, for lack of contributions, we substitute that
with questions of possibly larger interest, and the relevant

A reader wrote:

"I would love to see info on heat treating articles on
Inconel 718 and 625"

Here are a few pages on the requested items:

For Inconel 718:

History of development
Properties and mfg. info.
Properties and HT

For Inconel 625:

Properties and mfg. info.
Properties and HT

For information on both alloys above and many others too,
you may browse through the Site of
Carpenter Technology Corporation of Reading, PA, USA, at
Once there you have to register at no cost in order to gain
access to their most informative Data Sheets and also to
related Technical Articles. It is a most recommended
source of technical information on materials, for anybody


10 - Explorations: beyond the welder

For those readers open to learn on progress in Research,
Science related Articles and Essays are available (after
subscription) at

A lot of books on the most different subjects can be found,
read and downloaded at:

What it takes to build a Site on the Internet? Less than
what you think. To read how I did it myself, with a modest
budget and with amazing results in a relatively short time,
reach the full story, click on "How I built this Site".


11 - Correspondence: a few Comments

Correspondence is an active feature of ours and a service we
are proud of, for the benefit of our readers. We regularly
receive the most different questions and we put our best
effort to answer in a timely and complete way.

Although not clearly said, we understand that almost no
answer can be complete at the first trial, so that we are
ready to continue to deal with the same problem until it is
resolved, once more details are provided and the question
redefined: but not many readers seem to be ready to spend
the effort involved in explaining exactly what they need.
You should be encouraged to insist.

As already remarked, we receive only seldom a complete
description of the problem at hand, which makes our a
guesswork, difficult and not precise, probably because the
problem itself is not clear to the inquirer to begin with.

Furthermore we generally miss the final outcome: did our
answer help? Was the problem solved? Did our contribution
provide savings or gains? Did our hints stimulate the
inquirer to learn more and search deeper? We would like to
have more feedback. Any questions or comments or feedback? Write them down and send them to us by e-mail. Click on the Contact Us button in the NavBar at top left of every ( website page.
We would like to evaluate our work and possibly to improve on it.
How could we improve? Is there a lesson to be learnt,
useful for fellow welders?

Sometimes the question is such that it seems that if only
the reader had read the appropriate page in our site, he/she
would have found the answer or at least some help in
sharpening the question. If you do not tell us, we have no
way of guessing if you already know what is published on the
Site or not yet.

A common question regards which equipment to buy. I use to
invite the readers to gain some hands-on experience first,
by enrolling in one or more courses in a welding school. But
an annoyed reader assured me that he already was at school,
and why should I treat him as a newcomer, before answering
his question: I am sorry, but how am I supposed to know?

Sometimes we get thanks, to signify that what we proposed
was useful to the inquirer. But we would like to get also
your comments. Any questions or comments or feedback? Write them down and send them to us by e-mail. Click on the Contact Us button in the NavBar at top left of every website page (

As many readers ask us for training and education advice, we
would like to be able to provide feedback from the field, if
those who profited from a certain training course would care
to participate their experience and satisfaction for the
benefit of other fellow students.


12 - Bulletin Board

12.1 - You may have noticed that the Hardness Book promised
as of your subscription has been forwarded to you as an
attachment to an e-mail message, instead of a download.
This has been done because of certain practical problems.

A few readers get nervous when the book is not instantly delivered
to them: we would like to assure them that they will get it.

Anyhow it happened more than once that (as already reported)
the book and the message bounced back undelivered. We do not
know exactly why. Either the address was in error (we copy
and paste it as is) or the service provider could not find
the recipient or whatever.

We cannot keep track of the cases.
Therefore if you did not get the book do not despair,
just drop us a note and we will send it again.

12.2 - In the Table of the article on "How to select your
GMA Welder" published in the previous issue, a mistake fell
through, unfortunately. The last row should read as follows:
Thickn.: 6.35 mm = 0.25 inches. Amps Range: Min 140, Max 230

12.3 - I am wondering if those of you who pursuit the
application of welding for creating Artwork, would be
interested in setting up here a forum for exchange of
experience and useful tips. And also, maybe, to show off
their creations. Let me know if you like the idea. Any questions or comments or feedback? Write them down and send them to us by e-mail. Click on the Contact Us button in the NavBar at top left of every website page (

12.4 - Some readers ask us recommendations on specific
equipment. We would prefer providing practical answers from
the field, although they might be biased by personal
preference. We think that if we could have the readers
recommend the hardware they know and use and love, we could,
in time, build a database of practical tips that might be of
help to other fellow welders. What do you think? Any questions or comments or feedback? Write them down and send them to us by e-mail. Click on the Contact Us button in the NavBar at top left of every website page (

12.5 - Just in case you did not see it before, please be
informed that we prepared a report page on why and
how we built our Welding Advisers Site.
We believe that it can give a glimpse of the work behind the
scenes and possibly stimulate readers' curiosity.
To find it, click on "How I Built this Site".


Visit the Welding Advisers Site at
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