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PWL#094 & 094B - AWS Hbook Vol.4, Welding Codes, Corrosion Avoidance, Auto Tip Dressing, PEW
June 01, 2011
We hope you will find this Letter interesting and useful.
Let us know what you think of it.

AWS Welding Handbook - Volume 4, Complying with Welding Codes, Filler Metal for Corrosion Avoidance in Dissimilar Metal Weldments, Automated tip dressing for robotic Resistance Spot Welding, Percussion Welding, Flood-welding, Solvent Cleaning and much more...

June 2011 - Practical Welding Letter - Issue No.94


Mid June Bulletin

DON'T USE REPLY to send us your messages! Use Contact Us instead.

Please be advised that the Mid Month Bulletin is now integral with the regular PWL publication. You will find it further down, past the end of this Practical Welding Letter.
Don't miss it!

Important Announcement

For assembling at no cost your own Encyclopedia Online,
a rich collection of valuable information from expert Internet Sources, on
Materials, Volume 1,
and Metals Welding, Volume 2.
Order Now! at Metals-Knowledge.


1 - Introduction

2 - Article - AWS Welding Handbook - Volume 4

3 - How to do it well: Complying with Welding Codes

4 - Filler Metal for Corrosion Avoidance in Dissimilar Metal Weldments

5 - Online Press: recent Welding related Articles

6 - Terms and Definitions Reminder

7 - Article - Automated tip dressing for robotic Resistance Spot Welding

8 - Site Updating: Flood-welding, Solvent Cleaning

9 - Short Items

10 - Explorations: beyond the Welder

11 - Contributions: Percussion Welding

12 - Testimonials

13 - Correspondence: a few Comments

14 - Bulletin Board

(Sponsored Links)

1 - Introduction

Welcome back! This time our letter opens with a short review of the new long awaited for Volume 4 of the 9th edition of AWS Welding Handbook.
As it is the comprehensive work of a collection of voluntary experts, it cannot be summarized in a few lines of text.

It is one of the rare reference books that should be on the shelf of anybody involved with welding, as it can give the right answers, if only one cares to look for them. Together with the already published 3 Volumes of the same edition (and with the next and last Volume 5 due for publication sometimes in the future) the whole set is an invaluable tool ready for constant consultation.

Then an overview of Welding Codes and Standards is given, to answer a question that revealed complete unfamiliarity with the subject. It is the question of jurisdiction that must be asked, to understand who is in charge of making sure that requirements are met.

As a practical help tool, our Mid Month Bulletin #062, attached to the present issue, lists links to reference sources of different codes and standards, where interested readers may find what they need.

Follows an article on considerations to be taken into account when looking for suitable filler metals for joining combinations of dissimilar metals. If also corrosion may occur, then the project becomes complex and needs the most complete treatment available, from the design stage.

An article is reported on the advantages of automatic tip dressing of resistance spot weld electrodes, especially when robotic welding is employed on galvanized steel sheets. Correct implementation supports quality and economy.

Percussion Welding may be the correct solution for certain demanding applications. Knowing what it is and where it provides the most benefits may help in specific instances.

In the Pages of the Month review, two new pages are introduced, one on Flood Welding, a technique used for repairing massive tool steel dies, and on Solvent Cleaning, that most if not all use, in preparation for welding, even if not aware of safety and economy issues.

To remain updated with new pages, browse regularly through the Site Map, the Index Page or subscribe to our Welding Blog, showing new and revised pages, from just below the NavBar in every page.

For letting us have your comments DON'T USE REPLY, click on Contact Us instead. Other common columns are found where you would expect them.

Don't miss our Mid June Bulletin #62 appended to this issue #094 of Practical Welding Letter, providing links to valuable information on Resources on Welding Codes and Standards.
Please see it past the end of the first part of this publication.

2 - Article - AWS Welding Handbook - Ninth Edition, Volume 4

After much waiting, the fourth volume of the Ninth Edition of the AWS Welding Handbook finally arrived in my hands. I believe the whole set of 4 Volumes published up to now in the present 9th Edition is an important repository of essential knowledge for anybody involved with welding.

This Volume in particular contains useful information on Metallurgy and Weldability of metals.

The condensed yet complete information, makes this volume invaluable for reference but also for study of specific subjects and for solving practical problems.

From a rapid review of its content one can see that it includes valuable chapters on Welding of:

  • Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels,
  • High Alloy Steels,
  • Coated Steels,
  • Tool and Die Steels,
  • Stainless and Heat-Resistant Steels,
  • Clad and Dissimilar Metals,
  • Surfacing Materials,
  • Cast Irons,
  • Maintenance and Repair,
  • Underwater Welding and Cutting.

I was delighted of the thorough treating of Chapter 9 -
Maintenance and Repair Welding.

I think its content should prove valuable to anybody in charge of Maintenance and Repair duties, in particular with reference to welding.
The recommended process of planning for welding repair is outlined.

The importance of determining the cause of failure and of identifying the base metals is rightfully stressed. The application of proper investigation routines is requested, together with the use of suitable non destructive evaluation methods to determine the extent of the damage.

X-Ray fluorescence is recommended as a nondestructive analysis method capable to indicate the chemical composition, or at least a qualitative analysis likely to suggest to which family the material pertains. The use of hardness test is advocated for revealing the heat treatment condition.

Attention is called to a list of arguments that may influence the decision to repair or not, and by which means. As replacement may not be the best solution, thorough examination of alternatives is recommended.

Weldability should be ascertained before applying welding procedures. The need to document all that is known on the case, recording the source of the knowledge and the reasoned discussion of alternatives are stressed as necessary steps while planning repair welds. An item checklist is proposed.

Suitable documentation will help in future treatment of the same or similar failures and will prove invaluable in case of litigation, to demonstrate suitable attention to issues of safety and reliability.

A few examples of complex repair procedures actually conducted on installations that developed leaks or wear failures, provide a feeling of the kind of investigation and programming that must take place.

The chapter closes with instructive conclusions on the importance of the willingness to accept rising standards of metal technology, on the limited understanding of the real problems that inexperienced people, having a say in the decisions, may force upon the welder.

This may occur even against the recommendations of experts who know the most appropriate materials and joining processes but may have limited authority to decide.

Serious professionals, looking for continuing education, are urged to seek this volume in a library, to get a first hand impression if it is likely to improve their knowledge and know-how.

Interested Readers may download in pdf format the above described
Chapter 9 - Maintenance and Repair Welding,
from AWS Welding Handbook - Ninth Edition, Volume 4
(or any other) by purchasing it at an economical price ($20/15) through, as advertised in the Welding Journal, May 2011 edition, page 95.

To purchase the new book you may use the following link:
Welding Handbook Volume 4 - Materials and Applications Part 1
Edition: 9th
American Welding Society / 2010 /
Click to Order.

3 - How to do it well: Complying with Welding Codes

Readers are referred to my page on Quality, presenting the main issues governing all aspects related to this most important subject.

It is not uncommon that from time to time questions arise referring to interpretation of Code requirements. One such question was formulated as follows:

"I was told that in VA (Virginia) there are requirements for weld inspections of pressure vessels. Max pressure in this reactor will be 40 PSI. Is there a federal reg requiring the welds to be x-rayed?"

The answer cannot be exhausted only with regard to radiographic inspection of welds. Depending on the actual design and function of the referred reactor, it will probably become under the jurisdiction of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), whose Section IX regulates "Welding and Brazing Qualifications".

While the comprehensive requirements refer also to design, materials, installation and periodic inspection, exemptions may be applicable in well defined specific cases. To provide a correct and complete answer capable to stand Court inquiry, with reference to specific paragraphs of the applicable Code, a study of the case must be done after all details are established and known.

Authorized Inspectors, certified by insurance companies or by jurisdictional authorities are endowed with the capacity to perform inspections and examinations of components built to the ASME Code.

Manufacturers intending to fabricate components to the ASME Code must obtain an ASME Certificate of Authorization, also called Code Stamp, before initiating the work. Furthermore they must have an operational and approved quality control system and a manual describing it.

The language of Codes and Specification is highly technical and the correct terms must be used to convey the exact intention. As the application is required by law however, the discussion of specific paragraphs may be open to discussion in certain borderline case, to the delight of lawyers who specialize in the matter.

When requests for clarification are referred to the committees who released the Code or Standard, the agreed upon answers are generally collected in Interpretation Appendixes that become the official meaning of the issue from the date of their publication.

To be complying with Codes one has to check if the project on hand in any given location, is under a jurisdictional authority.

To get a feeling for what it means meeting Code Requirements, readers are invited to see the following post on a valuable Forum:
Distillation column manufacturing - right grade of steel?

The Mid June Bulletin #62 appended to this issue #094 of Practical Welding Letter, provides Resources on Welding Codes and Standards. Please see it past the end of the first part of this publication.

4 - Filler Metals for Corrosion Avoidance in Dissimilar Metal Weldments

The use of different materials in different regions of complex constructions may be dictated by the different service conditions prevailing in those parts. Problems could arise by the necessity to join by welding the different materials.

While cold welding processes like explosion welding, friction welding or magnetic pulse welding permit successful joining of dissimilar incompatible metals, fusion welding is almost always unusable because of severe limitations.

For fusion welding having some chance to succeed, the two metals should have quite near melting temperatures, should have mutual solubility without generating brittle intermetallic phases, should have compatible differences in thermal conductivity and expansion and should not generate galvanic corrosion.

In certain cases it may be possible to fabricate a bimetallic insert, by one of the non fusion welding processes, to be then fusion welded separately to each one of the two incompatible materials.

See my article on this subject of
Joining Incompatible Materials
April 10, 2007
Click on Incompatible.

In all other cases when fusion welding is possible, the selection of a suitable filler metal is quite limited and subjected to additional requirements. A frequent situation in certain constructions for power generation involves the necessity to join ferritic steel to heat resistant austenitic steel.

In this case the primary requirement is to avoid cracking likely to appear if hard and brittle martensitic phases are allowed to form in the weld metal. The tendency of crack formation depends on the structure obtained when weld metal is formed by the dilution of the base metal in the molten filler metal.

To appreciate this tendency in the case described above, it is customary and quite useful to evaluate the dilution likely to occur. Then, using the Schaeffler diagram to predict weld metal microstructure (or one of its more modern editions(1)), one traces a straight line between two points describing base metal and filler metal.

The diagram has on the horizontal line the chromium equivalent percent, calculated from the known compositions with an accepted formula, and in the vertical line the nickel equivalent. After joining with a line the point of the base metal with that of the filler metal, one marks on it a point at the assumed dilution point. If the dilution is assumed 50%, the point representing the weld metal will be at mid length.

As the diagram indicates the structure of any point in the plane, one can presume that the structure of the weld metal will reflect that of the surrounding area. To avoid cracks it is important to have this point far from the martensitic region, and, if in the austenitic region, to have at least some ferrite (~5%).

For welding mild steel to stainless, one has to provide a buttering layer on the mild steel, using a high alloy filler metal.
A common choice is Type 309, either from a wire or from an electrode, depending on the weld process used.

If more weld passes are needed, with filler metal approaching in composition that of the stainless base metal, the dilution should be kept to a minimum, to avoid martensite formation in the weld metal. The difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the two dissimilar materials may introduce internal stresses in the structure if it is exposed to elevated temperatures during service.

Galvanic corrosion can occur to the most anodic metal or phase in the joint. As the weld metal is composed of different microstructural phases, localized galvanic corrosion can occur between those phases.

The composition of the weld metal should be adjusted to provide cathodic protection to the most susceptible of the two. Also hydrogen embrittlement and stress corrosion cracking should be accounted for. Consideration of all factors involved is a major engineering project.

Note (1):

  • Schaeffler Diagram : A. L. Schaeffler, Metal Progress, Vol 26, 1949, p 680
  • C.J. Long and W.T. DeLong Diagram, Welding Journal, Vol 52, 1973 p 281s
  • WRC (Welding Research Council) 1992 Diagram, Welding Journal, Vol 71, May 1992, p. 171s

5 - Online Press: recent Welding related Articles

Innovative Surface Welding Process Produces Perfect Seams on Car Bodies

Nelson Stud brings aluminum stud welding to shipbuilding industry

High quality and process stability for welding copper

Advancements in FCAW

How to Accomplish Faster Ultrasonic Welds

6 - Terms and Definitions Reminder

Gun Extension is a tube attached in front of a thermal spray gun to permit spraying in a confined area or in a deep recess.

Macroexamination is the examination of a metallographic section with no or low magnification.

Narrow Groove Welding is a welding process variation that uses multipass filler metal deposition. A small root opening and a small grove angle gives a weld with high depth to width ratio.

Percussion Welding (PEW) produces welding with an arc from rapid discharge of electric energy. Forging pressure is applied with an impact (percussion) immediately after the discharge. See hereafter in Section 11.

Resistance Welding Current is that which passes through the electrodes during spot welding. Preweld and postweld current are usually considered separately.

Surface Preparation consists in the sequence of operations needed to get the required surface condition.

Tension Test is performed by loading a test specimen in tension and by increasing the load until fracture, generally while recording in a graph the strain increase (or change) as a function of load.

Weld Recognition is a function of adaptive control that monitors changes in the weld pool shape and provides feedback for suitable automatic correction.

7 - Article - Automated tip dressing for robotic Resistance Spot Welding

An interesting article, published in the May 2011 issue of the Welding Journal at page 28, reports on research conducted to optimize automatic tip dressing operation. Although important for every Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) application, this operation becomes critical when welding galvanized steel parts for automotive production in robotic cells.

The reason is that the copper alloy welding tips contact surfaces are quickly contaminated by the zinc buildup from the protective coating of the steel, so that after only a few hundreds welded spots, the degraded tip surface condition interferes with welding and produces defective spot welds.

While the manual operator can be instructed to perform tip redressing as soon as the surface appearance deteriorates, the need for automatic redressing solution was acutely felt for robotic applications.

The article reports on systematic trials that were performed in a given testing setup to find out the maximum number of spots that can be safely welded between dressing operations. Short trials of the same kind may need to be performed again when parameters change.

The robot is instructed to bring the electrode tips to the cleaning station, where dressing is performed without human intervention according to prerecorded parameters.

The article reports cost data collected, that reveal the economic gain that can be obtained by integrating in the robotic welding cell a suitable automatic dresser designed to service one or more robotic spot welding units.

The conclusion is that electrode management is important for productivity and quality. The author forecasts that automatic tip dressing usage will expand in the future as its intrinsic advantages are recognized by the industry.

Interested readers are urged to seek the original article as described above.

8 - Site Updating: Flood-welding, Solvent Cleaning

Here we are again: a new month, a new Practical Welding Letter and two new website pages, called the Pages of this Month. Why should new pages be added constantly? It is mostly to keep the website alive and well, active and interesting at least to some of the readers.

I cannot promise to offer each time new subjects, never heard of before, but the idea in general is to offer new points of view, something to think about and may be to discover some new aspects that were previously unknown, possibly with reference to practical applications.

As there is now already quite some information in the website pages and in its periodic publications, it is quite difficult, even for me, to keep track of all that was written along the years. Performing a Google search is an easy way to find in the website what one needs.

This month a new page was written on Flood Welding, which is a process mainly used to repair worn or damaged dies. Those readers who apply it could possibly teach us a few things about their way to do it, if they cared to put their thoughts in writing. I would welcome personal notes for publication intended to share knowledge and know how.

The other page deals with Solvent Cleaning, that most welders are probably using quite often without thinking of the dangers or of ways to make it more worker-friendly. The page might stir some interest to initiate some research to improve the process and its economy and to reduce the hazards.

Check regularly for pages you may need in the Web Site Map, in the Index Page, or subscribe to the RSS feed using the instructions given in every page ( under the Navigation Bar.

If you don't find what you need you can always ask and Contact Us using the usual form.

9 - Short Items

9.1 - Mill, in the context of metalworking industries, has several different meaning as follows:

  • A factory in which metals are worked or cast into shapes suitable for further fabrication into commercial products.
  • A production line or a single machine where sets of rolls are held in several stands, for hot or cold rolling metal standard shapes such as bar, rod, plate, sheet, or strip.
  • A shop term for a milling cutter.
  • A machine or group of machines for grinding or crushing ores and other minerals, or for mixing materials in preparation for powder metallurgy production.

9.2 - Pipe is a tubular product, commonly indicated according to its Inside Diameter. It is also the cavity formed in castings by contraction in metal during solidification and describes defects in cast products.

9.3 - Rust is the visible corrosion product consisting of hydrated oxides of iron.

9.4 - Swarf is the residual mixture of grinding chips and fine particles of abrasive resulting from a grinding operation.

9.5 - Transmission Electron Microscope is an electronic instrument intended to probe the finest structure of ultrathin specimens of materials. A visual image of the interaction of the electrons transmitted through the specimen reveals features magnified at much higher resolution than that achieved by optical microscopes.

9.6 - Ultrahigh Strength Steels, are by convention those Structural steels with minimum yield strengths of 1380 MPa (200 ksi), when suitably manufactured and heat treated.

10 - Explorations: beyond the Welder

Projects in Profusion: A Skeptical Look at 3 Wild Fusion-Energy Schemes
Click on SA1.

Arm's Trace: Astronomers Spot a Newfound Piece of the Milky Way Galaxy
Click on SA2.

Kepler Spacecraft Shows That Smaller Planets Abound
Click on SA3.

Airport security: Intent to deceive?

Can Europe build a framework for success?

11 - Contributions: Percussion Welding

The process called Percussion Welding (PEW) is essentially an arc process, similar to stud welding. However it is performed on machines that present features usually found on Resistance Spot Welders.

It is recommended as the preferred process for joining sintered silver contacts to copper bars. Note that the two dissimilar materials have quite different melting points, so that any regular fusion welding process cannot be successfully performed.

The information on this application is presented in an informative Q&A note published on page 22 of the May 2011 issue of the Welding Journal.
I already recommended in the past the usefulness of these short notes in that they reflect experiences gained by solving practical problems.

The sintered silver contact, that has a hemispherical surface on top, and a small protrusion on the opposite side, is inserted in the upper electrode and is held there by vacuum. The copper part to be welded is clamped on the bottom electrode.

After closing security doors for operator's protection, upon starting the cycle, the upper electrode is lowered under low force, so that the projection contacts the copper bar. Then half a cycle of electric power (discharge) is released between the electrodes. That produces an extremely hot arc that explodes the projection.

Concurrently the energizing of an additional doughnut shaped electro magnet imparts a sudden downward forceful push to the upper electrode. This extinguishes the arc and forges the metal of the molten projection into the heated copper bar, creating an intimate weld.

The excess flash is then removed and the cycle is ready to be repeated with new parts to be welded. While this process requires specialized equipment, it produces strong joints at good production speeds.

Interested readers are urged to seek the original article as described above.

12 - Testimonials

From: Gary Page
To: Welding Advisers
Date: 02 May 2011, 07:47:07 PM
Country: United States
Subject: RE: MPW
Hello Elia:
Thank you very much for your insights, suggestions and for your time.
Gary Page

Date: 03 May 2011, 05:40:59 PM
Subject: Submission from "Form 5" on

Name: Leo Benetti-Longhini
E-mail Address: removed for security
Country: United States
Introduce Your Organization: Machine design group at Jacobs Technology, Inc
Describe Your Responsibility: Machine design engineer.
Questions and Feedback : Dear Elia,
We appreciate your advice.
Leo Benetti-Longhini

13 - Correspondence: a few Comments

13.1 - This seems to be the season when welding students have to work on projects. The ideas range in every direction, not always practical. Of course there are objective constraints to what can be done in an academic department.

I would be pleased to publish short reports of successful accomplishments, if some of the students, after having finished their duties, were so kind to send me their contribution.
I think it could be interesting for many readers.

13.2 - I have the usual requests for undefined equipment like a "microwelding machine" without any further specification. Is it really so difficult to imagine that the description is incomplete?

13.3 - Despite the clear recommendation in the Contact Us Form, to perform a short research as indicated there before shooting the inquiry, quite often my answer is simply the link to one of my pages explaining the issue. My recommendation is to be specific as much as you can, otherwise I have to ask more question just to understand what you need.

14 - Bulletin Board

14.1 - Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) Annual Conference
June 5-7 - Hyatt Regency Bellevue - Bellevue, Wash.

14.2 - The Prevention of Weld Failures
June 14-15 - New Orleans, LA USA

14.3 - ASNT Digital Imaging XIV
July 18-20 - Foxwood Resort, Mashantucket, Conn. USA

14.4 - 14th Annual Aluminum Welding Conference
September 20-21, 2011 - Fort Lauderdale, FL

14.5 - See the First Day of the Rest of Your Life

14.6 - Here is the best Introduction to Site Build It! and SiteSell

14.7 - Visit SiteSell Facebook right now and see for yourself.
Click on SiteSell Facebook.

Click on the following image to watch the SBI! TV Show!



Build It!

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Please continue to browse down hereafter for the Mid June Bulletin.

Copyright (©) 2011, by Elia E. Levi and
All Rights Reserved

* * *

Mid Month Bulletin #62 - PWL#094B
June 2011

keywords: Welding Codes, Welding Standards, Quality Systems, Welding Inspection, ASME BPVC

PWL#094B - Resources on Welding Codes and Standards, Quality Systems, Welding Inspection, ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX-Welding and Brazing Qualifications, Welding Engineering, European Welding Standards, Steel Construction, NFPA Codes & Standards, Safety and Health Topics, Inspector Qualification Examination, Combat Vehicle Welding Code, Japanese Codes and much more...

Mid June Bulletin

June 2011 - Resources on Welding Codes - Bulletin #62

Important Announcement

For assembling at no cost your own Encyclopedia Online,
a rich collection of valuable information from expert Internet Sources, on
Materials, Volume 1,
and Metals Welding, Volume 2.
Order Now! at Metals-Knowledge.

* * *


This Mid June Bulletin #62 is now integral with and appended to the regular PWL#094 publication.

The subject of this Bulletin is a collection of Online Resources on Welding Codes and Standards, as an extension of the article published in Section 3 above on Complying with Welding Codes, in addition of the content of my page on Quality.

Anyone involved with Compliance to Welding Standard should be conversant wih the requirements affecting his/her activities. No better tutor than the applicable Source from which one should learn the rules.

Links to the Mid Month Bulletin Pages are listed in the regularly updated page on Welding Resources (Opens a new Window).

We urge our readers to Bookmark this page and to subscribe to our Welding Site Blog by clicking on the orange buttons under the NavBar in each Website page.( To see Updates, you may also click periodically on the Welding Blog button in the NavBar.

The addresses reported hereafter were live and correct at the time of their publication. There is no guarantee that they will always be so, because they are administered by the sources themselves and are under their control.

Note: References to articles or other documents are given here in one of two forms. If the links are "live" (usually underlined or otherwise highlighted) they are operated with a click of the mouse.

If they are URL's (Uniform Resource Locator), which is the analogue of an address, they begin with "http://..." or "www.". These are not live and must be copied and pasted entirely into the browser (after having selected them with the mouse or otherwise). If they are long they may be displayed in two or more lines. In that case one has to care that the URL be copied completely in a single line without any space, and Enter.

If the information is important to you as we hope, you may save the selected pages in a suitable folder on your Computer for easy reference. You are welcome to forward this page to those of your friends who may profit of this information.

* * *


Establishing quality systems for welding

What welding inspectors should know about welding codes and standards

Is there a welding code for structural welding of aluminum?

List of welding codes

Codes and Standards - Welding Engineering

Standards - application standards, codes of practice and quality levels

Codes and Standards - Piping codes and standards

Welding Inspection - Codes and Standard

Welding Codes and How They Are Used (3 pages)

ASME - International Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

BPVC Section IX-Welding and Brazing Qualifications BPVC-IX - 2007

Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code - Overview

ASME IX - Introduction

European Welding Standards (39 frames)

British standards and codes of practice relating to steel construction

CASTI Guidebook to ASME Section IX

List of NFPA codes & standards

Safety and Health Topics - Welding, Cutting, and Brazing

FAQs regarding the Inspector Qualification Examination - Structural Welding

Quick Guide to Welding and Weld Inspection


Ground Combat Vehicle Welding Code - Steel (165 pages)


Can I transfer my steel welding procedures to aluminum?

Welding essentials: questions & answers

WeldOffice® WPS module - Welding Procedure Specifications

Welding Software: manage welding procedures to ASME IX, EN 288/EN 156xx and AWS D1.1

Welding FAQs

FEMA-353/ June 2000
Recommended Specifications and Quality Assurance Guidelines
for Steel Moment-Frame Constructions for Seismic Applications
(201 pages)

Recent development of Codes and Standards
of Boiler and Pressure Vessels in Japan
(54 pages)
(Companion guide to the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code)

Japanese Codes and Standards System for Boilers and Pressure Vessels – An Overview (6 pages)

Construction Codes and Standards:
Avoidance of New Nuclear Power Plant Construction Delays (272 pages)

LANL Engineering Standards Manual ISD 341-2 - Chapter 13, Welding & Joining
GWS 1-05, Welder Performance Qualification and Certification (6 pages)
Attachment 4, Qualification Test Acceptance Criteria

Oil & gas projects standard design & construction codes and standards

Welding Code Book

* * *

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