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PWL#088 & 088B - Quality Reducing Waste, Increasing WDR, Low Hydrogen Electrodes, Hexavalent Chrome
December 01, 2010
We hope you will find this Letter interesting and useful.
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PWL#088 - Quality Best Practice in a Fabrication Environment, Increasing the Weld Deposition Rate (WDR), Low Hydrogen Electrodes, Dangers of Hexavalent Chromium, SAW Electrode Extension, Stress Relieving, Acoustic Emission Inspection and more...

December 2010 - Practical Welding Letter - Issue No. 88


Mid December Bulletin

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Please be advised that the Mid Month Bulletin is now integral with the regular PWL publication. You will find it further down, past the end of this PracticaL Welding Letter.
Don't miss it!

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1 - Introduction

2 - Article - QUALITY: Best Practice in a Fabrication Environment

3 - How to do it well: Increasing the Weld Deposition Rate

4 - Filler Metals:Low Hydrogen

5 - Online Press: recent Welding related Articles

6 - Terms and Definitions Reminder

7 - Article - The Dangers of Hexavalent Chromium

8 - Site Updating: Stress Relieving, Acoustic Emission

9 - Short Items

10 - Explorations: beyond the Welder

11 - Contributions: Submerged Arc Welding Electrode Extension Nozzles

12 - Testimonials

13 - Correspondence: a few Comments

14 - Bulletin Board

(Sponsored Links)

1 - Introduction

This 88th Issue of Practical Welding Letter opens with an Article from a friend of mine, Naddir M. Patel, an Engineer with vast expertise in process optimization, reducing operating costs and increasing profitability by targeting unseen wastes.

In many industrial welding operation that did not yet undergo a thorough search for productivity improvements, there are usually many sources of waste that should be minimized for improving performance. The article highlights some of the most evident losses.

Then a note is published concerning a known but often disregarded way of increasing the Weld Deposition Rate, an important parameter directly connected with profitability.

For the section on Low Hydrogen Filler metals readers are addressed to a comprehensive article available online, that dispels a few doubts and provides remarkable insights.

The following article on the Dangers of Hexavalent Chrome was written at the suggestion of a kind reader whose letter is reported in the Testimonials section. I am grateful to Mr. Scott Kelso who took the initiative to suggest an argument in need of urgent consideration.

I urge other readers to follow the lead and propose the subjects they feel should be presented in this publication.

I was somewhat in doubt for the next subject in section 11, because of its commercial character. Although I am not endorsing or recommending any commercial product, I think it is my duty to let my readers know that certain practical solutions exist that might give them a gain, if they judge them significant for their operations.

The ceramic extension nozzles have been used for increasing the electrode extension in SAW, and at least one independent study proved their worth (See Reference in section 11 down this page).

The Pages of this Month deal with Stress Relieving, a post weld process much used after welding and with Acoustic Emission Inspection, a very useful nondestructive testing method of specific capabilities.

The other departments can be found at their usual place. Readers are reminded that the Mid December Bulletin is now appended at the end of this regular issue, don't miss it.

If you are just curious to explore past issues of this publication, you can find them by clicking on the Index of Past Issues of PWL.

2 - Article - QUALITY: Best Practice in a Fabrication Environment

by Naddir M Patel
(Calgary, Alberta, Canada)

The terms "LEAN" and "Six Sigma", although well understood and successfully leveraged in a number of industries, are a long way from acceptance in the welding/fabrication industry.

This note is therefore aimed at dispelling doubts about this sometimes much maligned and user friendly force multiplier in productivity.

Three essential parameters determine the success of an industrial operation:

Price, On-time-Delivery and Product Quality.

Quality Assurance protocols which ties in all three, thus form the Lynchpin of productivity and in-effect profitability of the operation.

The following is therefore a hypothetical Murphy's Law syndrome experienced by many fabricators, and a methodology of avoiding the resultant costly pitfalls.

The GOAL: To produce what the customers want, when they want it, exceeding their quality expectations, while being productive, profitable and safe.

Problem Statement:

  1. Poor scheduling and purchase of raw material and consumables. Materials being ordered piecemeal and being received at various stages of production, leading to loss of productivity and man-hours.
  2. Poor traceability of material and manpower in the shop. Items being received without MTR (Material Test Report), material not being adequately checked against the received paperwork. Materials earmarked for one project, diverted to another, without documentation. Inadvertent material grade substitution. Non stamping by welders.
  3. Lack of transparency and accountability in shop operations. Issuing of drawings to the shop floor and scheduling production while being aware that revisions are in the pipeline. Welders/Fitters not being educated to ensure

    (a) beginning work only after receipt of latest drawing revision,
    (b) awareness of welding procedures specifications (WPS), client and/or code (pre-heat, inter-pass temperatures, test plate, etc) requirements,
    (c) stamping of identifying marks and re-stamping those heat numbers that have been erased during processing.


  1. Issue of a plethora of NCR's (Non Conformance Reports).
  2. Cost over-runs through extensive waste from rejection, re-work and overtime.
  3. Client and 3rd party inspector dissatisfaction with quality and late delivery.


  1. Stratifying the ordered material, project/package wise. Streamlining inventory management by reducing or eliminating purchase of "stock" items.
  2. Identifying and documenting each component and MTR (Material Test Report)(at receiving) per Code and Package number. Scanning each MTR and connecting it (intranet) with individual parameters (Job #; PO (Purchase Order) #; Heat #; Plate/Tracking #). Designating a specific area/(s) for their storage, in proximity to the area of their planned welding-assembly.
  3. QC (Quality Control) involvement: Initiating Fabrication only after sign-on by QC and confirmed identification of the materials in the travel sheet. Substitution of material only after confirmation from QC.
  4. Intelligent (Lean) Operational Layout: Welders need to remain in the welding area and focus on welding. Welding operators need to be provided with specific work instructions, based on the Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) and drawing. They should not waste time in chasing drawings, weld procedures, parts or consumables. These activities need to be the responsibility of non skilled workers ("water spider") whose job function and focus is solely on maintaining material flow between work areas so that welders, fabricators and assemblers focus on their expertise and maintain their Takt time (defined as the maximum time per unit allowed to produce a product in order to meet demand). Each welding/fabrication/assembly station must operate on a cart system. The welder/fitter is provided with the specific components, consumables and tools for the part/machine he or she is working on, as well as, that for the next one. When a cart is emptied, that signals the water spider to bring the next consecutive one, all numbered as per the production and inspection schedule. This way material traceability established at receiving is maintained through the process. Waste through the use of superior, but costly components and the subsequent time lost in item tracing and/or re-ordering is avoided. By reducing this set-up time losses, having the welders/fitters focus solely on their job function. This optimization of work area logistics could conceivably reduce man-hours by 40%.
  5. Intelligent Scheduling: Accurate and transparent scheduling, incorporating various production steps and their set-up times. Factoring in, late receipt of components through flexible, multi-tasking of other production packages in that time interval.
  6. Generating specific work instructions for each job, in clear and transparent terms, which includes a process checklist (for Hydro, for example) which is duly signed off by the welder/fitter on completion and counter signed by QC. Regular skill refresher seminars (such as "Lunch and Learn meetings"); supply of weld gauges and calculators would help in reaching a benchmarked goal.

Implementing Quality is thus NOT about scrapping defective parts, but scrapping defective operational methodologies.

It is doing the right things right, the first time, and every time. It is a value adding function; which when built into the product, far from being an expense (like the policing action required in Quality Control), becomes a powerful asset propelling the economic success of the company.

Quality Assurance addresses benchmarking and standardization of procedures; transparency of responsibilities, and in-built compliance with customer and code specifications. It is the methodology of operating effectively and efficiently to not just satisfy, but exceed customer expectations.

The focus, therefore, should be on preventing the occurrence of defects (process and material variations), instead of policing and repairing defects.

Using statistical data collection and analysis methodologies it is possible to identify efficiency and capacity problems; specifically losers known as COPQ (Cost of Poor Quality), that masked as repair, re-work, set-up time or unplanned repetitive maintenance, does not show up on balance sheets, but eats away at the profit margins.

Once identified, the focus is on the resolute elimination of any "WASTE" that interrupts or hinders efficient productivity.

This is called LEAN Production Management. The total time includes the setup, changeover, maintenance and scheduled downtime.

Lean Production Management addresses Eight Wastes endemic in Production

  1. Waste of waiting time. Production lead time is tied up in waiting and queuing for the next sequence in the operation, typically when the flow of material (scheduling and housekeeping of raw materials), and information (process parameters, client specifications, traceability documentation etc) availability is poor. An example would be the time lost by last minute shifting of manpower from one project to another due to unavailability of raw materials.
  2. Waste of workforce motion. Time lost in searching for materials and tools, out of immediate reach of the work station, as well as, Non productive/non value adding operations such as re-work and defect repair.
  3. Transportation waste. Improper or unnecessary handling. The number of material handling operations is directly proportional to the likelihood of damage to the vessel or piping spool.
  4. Inventory waste. Poor scheduling, holding or purchasing excessive materials, lack of housekeeping or well defined material layout.
  5. Processing waste. Producing scrap and/or parts (either because of lack of traceability or lack of definitive work instructions) that require rework and repair.
  6. Waste from product defect. This waste goes beyond the items rejected by quality control before shipment, but actually produces a domino effect throughout the entire manufacturing process. Waiting time is increased in subsequent processes, increasing costs and lead times. Rework and re-testing may be required to make the part usable (code acceptable), increasing labor costs. Additional labor may be required for disassembly and reassembly, sorting the defective from acceptable parts. Additional materials may be needed for replacement parts. As such there is a cost escalation in both materials and manpower.
  7. Waste from overproduction. Poor planning leading to producing well over customer requirements, where the customer is also the next consecutive process. More raw materials are consumed and wages paid than necessary or planned, resulting in procurement of extra inventory, additional material handling and reduction in storage space and restricted work space.
  8. Ignoring Innovation. Not encouraging active participation amongst shop floor workers and supervisors to be innovative/creative in their respective functions.

Identifying and eliminating wasteful processes is, therefore, the Best Practice that, when implemented, increases the workflow and production capacity without an increase in capital or operational costs. This LEAN methodology of continuous improvement, accelerates product delivery, combats budget overruns and perpetual over time and delivers a quality product appreciated by customers. The end result is improved cost competitiveness and business profitability.

Note: - This Article, kindly contributed by Naddir M. Patel, an expert in improving productivity of industrial operations, is also published in our Website Page Welding Talk under the same title as above.

3 - How to do it well: Increasing the Weld Deposition Rate

Weld Deposition Rate directly affects the productivity of the operation. Therefore it should be considered as one of the most important factors for satisfactory financial results.

For the processes employing continuous wire as filler metal, like Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW or Mig), Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) and Submerged Arc Welding (SAW), there is an easy way to increase the Deposition Rate, with minimum adjustment of parameters.

One recommended but under-used way of increasing the Weld Deposition Rate without incurring in unacceptable defects like burn through, is to increase the Electrode Extension called also Wire Stick Out (WSO), representing the free length of wire between the contact tip and the arc.

The reasons underlying the dramatic change in performance produced by this simple change are explained in some detail in the article following in section 11. That note refers in particular to SAW, but the principles are applicable also for the other mentioned processes.

Slight adjustments may be needed for other parameters, in particular the voltage may need a small increase to make up for the additional voltage drop along the added length of electrode consequent to the increased electrode extension.

Increased deposition rate, due to the higher resistance heating of the electrode between the contact tip and the arc, is the main advantage. Other advantages include lower heat input, higher impact properties, narrower heat affected zone, decreased penetration and lower dilution levels.

If burn through was a problem before increasing the extension, it may well be solved with this technique. It is true that some experimentation is needed to find the best set of parameters but understanding the basics should improve the performance.

In any case it should be one of the first changes to be attempted when working on improving the productivity of any welding operation, large or small.

4 - Filler Metals: Low Hydrogen

I would like to address readers interested in important information on low hydrogen electrodes, for specifying filler metals that resist hydrogen related cracking while also providing good mechanical properties, to the following recommended article.

It helps to dispel doubts on the confusion possibly generated by the term "low hydrogen" which is not included in the standard definitions by AWS.

Selecting Filler Metals: Low Hydrogen

5 - Online Press: recent Welding related Articles

Virtual Weld Training

Lincoln Electric Presents Welding Training; Welding Without Welding

Welding guns 101: light- or heavy-duty?

Welders Turn To Induction Heating For Preheating, Stress-Relieving

Connect - Issue 168 September/October 2010

6 - Terms and Definitions Reminder

Flashing Action in flash welding is melting and explosive ejection of molten material at contact points under light pressure because of high current density.

Gun Extension is a tube attached in front of a thermal spraying gun for spraying in confined areas or deep recesses.

Inspection Plan is a document specifying the type, the extent and the degree of inspection including also the reference to specifications or procedures. Acceptance limits of discontinuities indications must also be specified.

Melt-in Feed is a process variation in which filler metal is preplaced in the joint or continuously fed in the leading edge of the weld pool.

Non Consumable Electrode provides the heating arc to the weld without adding filler metal.

Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) is the allowable limit of dangerous airborne contaminants to which welders and other workers may be exposed, according to OSHA Standards.

Random Sequence is a longitudinal welding sequence in which the weld bead increments are made at random, without a prescribed plan.

Scarf Groove is a welding or brazing groove joint where the single bevel edges of the two abutting elements groove faces are parallel.

7 - Article - The Dangers of Hexavalent Chromium

A kind reader, Mr. Scott Kelso, worried by the fact that many welders are welding stainless steel with little or no protection from the dangers of Hexavalent Chromium, urged me to prepare a short note to alert those who may still be unaware of the hazards involved. I am grateful for the feedback and I hasten to comply with this timely request.

Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are substances that contain the metallic element chromium in its positive-6 valence (hexavalent) or +6 oxidation state. The toxicity of chromium compounds depends on the oxidation state of the metal.

Occupational exposures to Cr(VI) compounds occur during work activities such as stainless steel welding, thermal cutting, chrome plating, besides during primary manufacturing processes. Such exposure has been associated with increased incidence of lung cancer and of other adverse health effects, possibly less harmful than cancer.

Due to the dangers involved, severe directives have been issued by OSHA to both large industries and small businesses requiring employers to protect employees from the hazards associated with exposure to Cr(VI).

The Standards released on Feb. 28, 2006 by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) establish the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 5 microgram of Cr(VI) per cubic meter of air as a 8-hour time weighted average.

The action level, or the level where requirements of the standard such as medical surveillance may be required, is 2.5µg/m3 (microgram of Cr(VI) per cubic meter of air) or half the PEL value.

Employers must determine by measurement the 8-hour time weighted average exposure for each employee exposed to Cr(VI), collect exposure data and apply proper control methods.

There are three versions of the standard: General Industry (1910.1026), Construction (1910.1126) and Shipyards (1515.1026). The requirements of each standard are very similar.

Start Up Dates
The PEL, respiratory protection and engineering controls take effect on the following dates:

  • Employers with more than 20 employees — November 27, 2006
  • Employers with less than 20 employees — May 30, 2007
  • Feasible engineering controls must be in place — May 31, 2010

For welding, cutting and thermal spraying, the main ways to capture fumes containing hexavalent chromium are extraction from exhaust arms with hood near the welding place or with special torches with integral fume extraction.

Besides such controls and whenever there are doubts on their efficacy, personal respiratory protection means, as suitable filters per OSHA 1910.134, must be worn by affected workers.

In the Mid December Bulletin enclosed in this issue, following the regular Practical Welding Letter, various online links are proposed, that provide in depth information and references relative to this important subject. Interested readers are urged to download most or all of the indicated documents and to save them in a suitable Folder to be consulted for information.

The responsibility for the application of the protective standards remains squarely on employers' shoulders. Self-employed welders are responsible for their own health and well-being.

8 - Site Updating: Stress Relieving, Acoustic Emission

The Pages of this Month, added to the Website, deal with two unrelated subjects. Stress Relieving is a quite common treatment applied to welded structures for specific purposes. The most common way of performing it is the thermal version, requiring heating the structure in a suitable furnace.

Mechanical alternatives are available for large structures where a furnace is not available. See this page by clicking on Stress Relieving.

The other page provides basic information about Acoustic Emission Inspection methods that meet specific needs, require special equipment and highly trained inspectors. A useful application permits to monitor continuous welding processes in real time, immediately alerting inspectors and operators of sudden problems.

This new page can be seen by clicking on Acoustic Emission.

As usual, readers can remain updated by subscribing to the RSS page, appearing below the NavBar in every page, by looking at the updated Site Map or by browsing the Welding Blog that registers new pages as they appear.

To send feedback or for asking questions don't use Replay, please use the Contact Us Form.

9 - Short Items

9.1 - Blister is a casting defect, on or near the surface of the metal, resulting from the expansion of gas in a subsurface zone. It is characterized by a smooth bump on the surface of the casting and a hole inside the casting directly below the bump. It is also a raised area, often dome shaped, resulting from loss of adhesion between a coating or deposit and the substrate.

9.2 - Centrifugal Casting is the process of filling molds by pouring metal into a sand or permanent mold that is revolving about either its horizontal or its vertical axis or pouring metal into a mold that is subsequently revolved before solidification of the metal is complete.

An Article on Centrifugal Casting was published (7) in Issue 70 of Practical Welding Letter for June 2009. Click on PWL#070 to see it.

9.3 - Damping Capacity is the ability of a material to absorb vibration (cyclical stresses) by internal friction, converting the mechanical energy into heat.

9.4 - Free Machining describes the machining characteristics of an alloy to which one or more ingredients have been introduced to broken small chips, lower power consumption, improve surface finish, and extend tool life. Among such additions are sulfur or lead to steel, lead to brass, lead and bismuth to aluminum, and sulfur or selenium to stainless steel, materials which make those metals unsuitable for welding.

9.5 - Grain Size is a measure of the areas or volumes of grains in a polycrystalline metallic material, usually expressed as an average when the individual sizes are fairly uniform. In metals containing two or more phases, grain size refers to that of the matrix unless otherwise specified. Grain size is reported in terms of number of grains per unit area or volume, in terms of average diameter, or as a grain-size number derived from area measurements.

9.6 - Heat-resistant Alloy is an alloy developed for very-high-temperature service where relatively high stresses (tensile, thermal, vibratory, or shock) are encountered and where oxidation resistance is frequently required.

10 - Explorations: beyond the Welder

Long Live the Web: A Call for Continued Open Standards and Neutrality (6 pages)

Sliding Scale: A Tour of More Extraordinary Micro-Vistas [Slide Show] - (10 Frames)

Artificial Spider Silk Breakthrough

ORNL scientists crack materials mystery in vanadium dioxide


11 - Contributions: Submerged Arc Welding Electrode Extension Nozzles

One of the best explanations on the influence of the Electrode Extension, the length of filler wire between the contact tip and the arc, can be found at page 281 of the Welding Handbook, Ninth Edition, Volume 2, in Chapter 6 dealing with Submerged Arc Welding (SAW).

"Increased electrode extension adds a resistance element in the welding circuit and consumes some of the energy previously supplied to the arc. That is an increased voltage drop occurs in the electrode between the contact tip and the arc. With lower voltage across the arc, bead width and penetration decrease..."

The above is true when the electrode extension increase is the only variable, all other parameters remaining unchanged.

"[...] Other advantages of longer electrode extension include lower heat input, higher impact properties, narrower heat affected zone (HAZ),[...]"
"...Resistance heating ... increases the melting rate of the electrode. ... Deposition rates can be increased from 25 to 50% by using long(er) electrode extensions with no change in welding amperage. ... the deposition rate may approach that of the two-wire method with two power sources."

[Note: - Readers are urged to see for themselves the complete Chapter mentioned above.
The AWS Welding Handbook can be ordered online from my page ]

However very long electrode extensions may let the electrode tip and the arc wander under the flux cover and miss the joint. To keep the electrode in place, longer Ceramic Electrode Extension Nozzles were introduced, that allow to implement longer electrode extensions, and exploit the advantages summarized above.

One additional advantage is that in most cases the increased welding productivity is achieved without modifying PQR's/WPS's.

Disclaimer: No endorsement or recommendation are intended. This information is presented as it may be useful. Readers are urged to check for themselves if the method is applicable to their needs and if it can provide advantages.

Such ceramic nozzles as the TipMateTM Systems brand (maybe other brands are available) can be procured from my friend Naddir M. Patel of Raya Technical Services (Author of the article in Section 2 above) at

He informed me recently of a curious comment, that a number of customers, made aware of the remarkable productivity gains available with the simple and inexpensive substitution of the ceramic nozzles, dismiss this information as not important, and look for increased performance in much more expensive solutions like tandem supplies and the like.

He also added, in a private note: "My experience is that the top management is very interested in process optimization, but they delegate the responsibility to the floor welding supervisor who may or may not be inclined to collect operational data to make the presentation (what's in it for me seems to be the attitude)."

This attitude of general Management to delegate the responsibility of whole welding departments to supervisors, who may be skilled welders but lack the basic knowledge and motivation expected from welding engineers, is well known to cause untold losses to the welding industry.

("Let them weld their way...")

Managers are so blind to their failure that they may praise their own "far-sightedness" in that they spare to their Company the cost of a proper welding engineer as manager of welding operations.
A known and vocal critic of such warped logic is Ed Craig from

See as a Reference the Edison Welding Institute (EWI) presentation:
SAW Enhancement Using TipMate™ Nozzles (22 frames)

Notes: some of the acronyms appearing in the above Presentation are explained hereafter.
NSRP = National Shipbuilding Research Program
SAW = Submerged Arc Welding
WFS = Wire Feed Speed
CTWD = Contact Tip to Work Distance (the same as Electrode Extension or Wire Stick Out (WSO))
BOP = Bead on Plate
TS = Travel Speed
NAVSEA = Naval Sea Systems Command
NGSS = Northrop Grumman Ship Systems
HSLA = High Strength Low Alloy (Steels)
HAZ = Heat Affected Zone
HI = Heat Input

The following note can be seen online at

Application of TipMate Submerged Arc Welding Nozzles (completed)
The goal of this effort was to quantify the reported productivity and mechanical property improvements from the use of TipMate™ Nozzles for shipyard applications.

The Nozzle is a ceramic electrode extension that will enable higher deposition rates and reduced distortion without the loss of electrode support and arc stability typically experienced when an extended electrode is used in submerged arc welding (SAW).

The simple addition of this low-cost (less than $100) component added to an existing SAW head can easily provide 25-40% increase in productivity.

The productivity benefits are often equivalent to those seen with more elaborate tandem arc, AC square wave or twin-arc systems, but at a fraction of the cost and without the need for procedure re-qualification under many codes. The Final Report is available to U.S. Shipbuilding and Repair Industry only.[...]

Part of the following Article dealt already, in summary, with this subject:
Submerged arc welding optimization

12 - Testimonials

From: Michael Buskovitz
To: Welding Advisers
Date: 01 Nov 2010, 10:00:53 AM

There was nothing wrong, I liked reading all the information you sent my way.
Some of it was over my head but I liked that also made me think.
But I am retired and just want to relax.
Thank you for your service.

Michael Buskovitz

On Mon Nov 01 22:55:41 2010, the following results were submitted from the "Form 5" on

Name: Scott Kelso
E-mail Address: removed for security
Country: United States
Introduce Your Organization: OsramSylvania
Describe Your Responsibility: Machinist/welder
Questions and Feedback:
Please do a piece on the dangers of Hexavalent Chromium
and the proper way of achieving OSHA compliance.
I'm sure there are thousands of readers out there
who have been welding stainless for years with
little or no protection.
Thank you and Best regards.
Scott Kelso

I would like to warmly thank Mr. Kelso for his kind suggestion and remarks.
Readers are urged to submit titles of hot subjects they would like to see dealt with in these pages. They are also Invited to Contribute with notes based on their experience: any of the following would be a good subject.

  • A Success Story
  • The Correction of a Painful Error
  • Introduction of a New Process
  • Learning a New Technique
  • Finding Somewhere Useful Information
  • Proposing to Deal with a Neglected Subject
  • How a Substantial Gain (Loss Removal) was obtained.

13 - Correspondence: a few Comments

13.1 - I am always surprised when readers request quotations for equipment and/or consumables as if such offers were regularly made from this website. Quite often the requests are incomplete and confused so that probably nobody could provide useful offers.

I may ask for details to be able to help in the search. What happens however is that they never come back. I hope they find other ways to clarify to themselves and to their supplier what they really need.

13.2 - Readers asking information for their hobby welding at home are referred to my page
Hobby and Home Welding

I would recommend to welders working at home to be particularly alert to the dangers of welding and to implement all the precautions they learn. See my page on Safety.

14 - Bulletin Board

14.1 - Download your copy of the latest
AWS Publications Catalog - Fall 2010 at

14.2 - Watch Instructional Videos from ASM

Past ASM Webinars featuring presentations by industry experts
may be accessed free by all ASM community users.

Register for Announced Free Webinars: Scroll down the page at
and click on the events selected to reach the Registration Page.

Metallurgy of Fasteners
Thursday, December 2, 2010 - Time: 2 PM EST

Better Parts through Induction Heat Treating: Parts 1 & 2
Monday, December 6, 2010 3:30 p.m. EST

Better Parts through Induction Heat Treating: Parts 3 & 4
Tuesday, December 7, 2010 3:30 p.m. EST

Successful Failure Analysis and Yield Improvement
Wednesday, December 8, 2010 14:00 EST

14.3 - Follow SiteSell and you will be amazed...

SiteSell Facebook

SiteSell Twitter

On SiteSell Twitter, visitors will learn who SiteSell is, through each person delivering personal insights into SiteSell... his news, his interests and perspectives. They can interact with each "SiteSeller" too, asking questions of programmers, coaches or anyone else.

SiteSell YouTube

SiteSell Blog

Case Studies


The Buy-1 Get-1 Free Holiday Special for NEW annual SBI! subscriptions.

Click on the following image to watch the SBI! TV Show!



Build It!

Click on this Logo NOW!

Please continue to browse down hereafter for the Mid December Bulletin.

Copyright (©) 2010, by Elia E. Levi and
All Rights Reserved

* * *

Bulletin 56 - PWL#088B
December 2010

Keywords: Hexavalent Chrome, Health Effects, Standards, Toxicology, Cancer

PWL#088B - Resources on Hexavalent Chrome Dangers, Chrome Compounds, Airborne Particles, Contaminated Drinking Water, Health Effects, Standards, Toxicology, Exposure, Lung Cancer, Compliance, Risk Assessment, Effects and much more...

Mid December Bulletin

December 2010 - Resources on Hexavalent Chrome - Bulletin 56

Important Announcement

For assembling at no cost your own Encyclopedia Online,
a rich collection of valuable information from expert Internet Sources, on
Materials, Volume 1,
and Metals Welding, Volume 2.
Order Now! at Metals-Knowledge

See a note on Your Opportunity at the beginning of this page, just above the Table of Contents.

We urge our readers to Bookmark this page or to subscribe to our Welding Site Blog by clicking on the orange buttons under the NavBar in each Website page.(
You may also click periodically on the Welding Blog button in the NavBar.


This Mid December Bulletin #56 is now integral with and appended to the regular PWL#088 publication.

The subject of this Bulletin is a collection of Online Resources on Hexavalent Chromium Dangers, as an extension to the Article that was presented above in PWL#088 in Section 7, with the purpose of adding easily available References, to clarify the important points.

The observation of the reader that called this suject to my attention, remarking that "there are thousands of readers out there who have been welding stainless for years with little or no protection" is probably true, unfortunately.

Therefore every effort should be exerted to alert welders to check their own welding conditions and take initiatives, if needed, to avoid the known dangers by helping to implement the current established standards.

It is hoped that this modest contribution might help somewhat in improving the safety of welders by calling their attention to the actions needed to maintain their own health. It is their duty to take care of their own well being for the sake of their families.

Links to the Mid Month Bulletin Pages are listed in the regularly updated page on Welding Resources (Opens a new Window).

We urge our readers to Bookmark this page or to subscribe to our Welding Site Blog by clicking on the orange buttons under the NavBar in each Website page.(
You may also click periodically on the Welding Blog button in the NavBar.

The addresses reported hereafter were live and correct at the time of their publication. There is no guarantee that they will always be so, because they are administered by the sources themselves and are under their control.

Note: References to articles or other documents are given here in
one of two forms. If the links are "live" (usually underlined or otherwise highlighted) they are operated with a click of the mouse.

If they are URL's (Uniform Resource Locator), which is the analogue of an address, they begin with "http://..." or "www.". These are not live and must be copied and pasted entirely into the browser (after having selected them with the mouse or otherwise). If they are long they may be displayed in two or more lines. In that case one has to care that the URL be copied completely in a single line without any space, and Enter.

If the information is important to you as we hope, you may save the selected pages in a suitable folder on your Computer for easy reference. You are welcome to forward this page to those of your friends who may profit of this information.

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Hexavalent Chromium

US Dept. of Labor - OSHA - Hexavalent Chromium

Small Entity Compliance Guide for the Hexavalent Chromium Standards (63 pages)

Health Effects of Hexavalent Chromium (2 pages)

CDC - NIOSH Workplace Safety & Health Topics - Hexavalent Chromium - Overview

Hexavalent Chromium Standards

Understanding the New Hexavalent Chromium Standard

Highlights of the New Hexavalent Chromium Standard (2 pages)

Environment, Safety and Health Bulletin.
Update – Hexavalent Chromium

EPA criticised for hexavalent chromium move

National Toxicology Program - Hexavalent Chromium (2 pages)

Draft Public Health Goal for Hexavalent Chromium (4 pages)

Toxic Enemy #1 - Hexavalent Chromium

Hexavalent Chromium Case Study

Articles on Hexavalent Chromium

Hexavalent Chromium

Chromium Hexavalent Compounds

Toxic Substances Portal - Chromium

Chromium and Compounds, Hexavalent Chromium

Chromium in Drinking Water Causes Cancer

OSHA's new hexavalent chromium standard

Reflections on Hexavalent Chromium: Health Hazards of an Industrial Heavyweight

Hexavalent Chromium

Hexavalent chromium exposure:
Federal judge rules Oregon vets lawsuit against KBR can go directly to appeals court

TURI - Toxics Use Reduction Institute - Chapter 6. Hexavalent Chromium

The Dangers of Chromium Hexavalent

A Guide to the Hexavalent Chromium in Household Dust Studies

Understanding the Hexavalent Chromium Risk Assessment and Soil Standard Setting Process

Hexavalent Chromium Content

Effects of Hexavalent Chromium

Hexavalent Chromium Paper – Groundwater Resources

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