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PWL#099 & 099B - Thermomechanical Processing (TMP), Copper Furnace Brazing, Filler Metal for Welding
November 01, 2011
We hope you will find this Letter interesting and useful.
Let us know what you think of it.

Thermomechanical Processing (TMP), Copper Furnace Brazing, Filler Metal for Welding Copper to Nickel, Welding Galvanized Steel, Quality in Outsourcing, Alkaline Cleaning, Welding Guide, Welding related Articles and much more...

November 2011 - Practical Welding Letter - Issue No. 99


Mid November Bulletin


We are now only One Month before


of Practical Welding Letter.

We would like to celebrate with you, our faithful Readers,
this Unique Occasion.
If you were interested by what you read here along the years,
we would like to ask you to send us, as a token of appreciation, a meaningful and interesting article reflecting your unique experiences.
We will then publish your Contributions in the Special Issue, making it a remarkable and memorable event.

Wright right Now! - Don't delay...

DON'T USE REPLY to send us your messages! Use the Contact Us Form instead.

Please be advised that the Mid Month Bulletin is now integral with the regular PWL publication. You will find it further down, past the end of this Practical Welding Letter.
Don't miss it!


1 - Introduction

2 - Article - Thermomechanical Processing (TMP)

3 - How to do it well: Furnace Brazing Copper

4 - Filler Metal for Welding Copper to Nickel

5 - Online Press: recent Welding related Articles

6 - Terms and Definitions Reminder

7 - Article - Welding Galvanized Steel

8 - Site Updating: Alkaline Cleaning, Welding Guide

9 - Short Items

10 - Explorations: beyond the Welder

11 - Contributions: Quality in Outsourcing

12 - Testimonials

13 - Correspondence: a few Comments

14 - Bulletin Board

(Sponsored Links)

1 - Introduction

This 99th issue of Practical Welding Letter is the last one... displaying two significant figures in its identification symbol. The next one will be the 100th! I am repeating here my sincere invitation.

If you have nice feeling for my efforts and want to encourage me to continue publishing this monthly newsletter, please summon your energies and write down a short piece, reflecting your thoughts and your experiences, and let me have it as soon as possible to make it ready for publication in the special edition! I will most appreciate your concurrence.

What will you find in this issue?

Thermomechanical Processing is the modern and sophisticated way to produce advanced steels, for building light cars but also for general demanding application. I believe everyone should know of their existence and availability and be prepared to adapt to their special welding requirements if needed.

Furnace brazing of copper is quite popular and well known. In this note we are informed of an unexpected failure attributed to erroneous identification of copper type, contrary to the attached certificate. It seems a useful lesson probably applicable also to different situations.

Then, answering a specific question, two suitable filler metals are suggested for joining copper to nickel unspecified alloys.

Welding galvanized steel is a ponderous subject, with huge economic implication in large sectors of industry. To all involved, it is worthy to know how to weld it.

Outsourcing may be a temporary or long time solution to different hurdles affecting understaffed or overburdened industries. It is not easy however to keep quality if adequate efforts are not dedicated to develop suitable suppliers. Knowing by direct experience along several years the problems affecting quality of outsourced supplies, the author of the quoted article is in the perfect position for teaching newcomers how to confront the difficulties.

The new pages added to the website are dedicated this month to the Alkaline Cleaning process, and to a general orientation Welding Guide page meant mainly for beginners who need to make sense out of the mess.

The other sections can be found at their regular place, covering the usual subjects.

Again, if you want to be kind and helpful, send us your short story for publication in the 100th issue! Your comments and feedback are appreciated. Send everything using the Contact Us Form.

2 - Article - Thermomechanical Processing (TMP)

The microstructure of steel, as of any other metal, is the feature that most directly influences the mechanical properties, including mainly strength and toughness, within the frame of the relevant physical properties.

TMP is the sophisticated combination of precise deformation operations and careful heat treatment in a single production stage with the basic objective to control the microstructural changes of the material during hot deformation.

TMP was developed as controlled hot rolling to produce low carbon and microalloyed steels with a refined microstructure that allows for simultaneous increase in strength and toughness. Controlled rolling involves conditioning of austenite during hot deformation, so that the austenite transforms to a fine grain ferrite in the final as-rolled product.

The processing success depends on the synergistic effect of microalloy additions and carefully controlled thermomechanical conditions. Microalloyed steels have small amounts of elements such as vanadium, niobium and titanium added to their composition.

During hot working, those microadditions to the steel, displaying a strong affinity to nitrogen and carbon, develop the dispersive precipitations of nitrides, carbonitrides, and carbides. These intermetallic precipitates slow down recovery and recrystallization of the austenite between the successive rolling passes and limit its grain growth.

The fine grained austenite structure obtained makes possible, upon cooling down, the development of fine grained transformation products, having a significant effect in their strengthening and in the increase of their crack resistance. Ferrite grain refinement became therefore the preferred way to improve both strength and impact toughness.

The desired effect is attained only when the correct hot working temperature range is chosen for precipitation kinetics, of the interstitial phases of micro-additions introduced into the steel, in the austenite.

This provides for a unique combination of properties, in which ductility, toughness, and resistance to brittle fracture are increased along with strength.

The thermo-mechanical treatment, integrating steel hot working with direct quenching of the rolled products, permits to save energy, requiring only additional tempering.

The concept of TMP also applies to nonferrous systems, such as the forging of titanium alloys and nickel-base superalloys.

The Mid Month Bulletin 67, appended past the end of this regular Practical Welding Letter, displays a list of online reference Links to sources presenting further information on TMP.

3 - How to do it well: Furnace Brazing Copper

An interesting note at page 16 of the October 2011 of the Welding Journal advices against furnace brazing in a Hydrogen atmosphere, suggesting instead to select vacuum furnace with partial pressure of argon (to prevent outgassing of the copper).

The inquirer complained of the blisters appearing on the hydrogen furnace brazed parts. The material, which should have been "oxygen free" copper (C10200), was found after the mishap to be actually "tough pitch copper" (C11000) with 0.02-0.06% oxygen.

It appears that the material was erroneously misidentified and mis-certified.

The Author, Dan Kay, explains that blistering occurred when hydrogen combined with the cuprous oxide at the grain boundaries, forming steam that bubbled away cracking the grain boundaries, in what is called hydrogen embrittlement.

He also tries to appease the inquirer to think that such errors are rare and should be taken with compassion. Interested readers are urged to look for the original article indicated above.

4 - Filler Metal for Welding Copper to Nickel

Q: Can Copper be welded autogenously to Nickel by GTAW?

A: If by autogenously you mean without addition of a suitable filler metal then the answer is no. The use of a recommended filler metal like ERCuNi or ERCuNi-7 per AWS A5.7/A5.7M:2007 is typically required, although in this question the exact alloys are not identified. GTAW is applicable for section thickness of 3 mm or less, preheating is not required. The arc is directed at the more conductive metal being welded.

5 - Online Press: recent Welding related Articles

Foreign fabricators setting up shop in the U.S.

Heat-treating line pipe weld seams

Miller Pro Welding News

Preventive Maintenance for Automated Welding

New support for welding research centre
U. Alberta.

6 - Terms and Definitions Reminder

Platen in resistance welding is a flat surface on which dies, fixtures, backups or electrode holders are attached, and that transmits the electrode force or the upset force.

Quench Time in resistance welding starts from the end of welding till the beginning of temper time.

Random Intermittent Welds on one or both sides of a joint with welding increments, are made without regard to spacing.

Square Edge Shape is a type of edge shape in which the prepared surface to be welded lies perpendicular to the upper surface of the element to be welded. Typical for square groove butt joints.

Travel Start Delay Time is the time interval from arc initiation to the start of torch or gun travel or to the start of workpiece travel.

Travel Stop Delay Time is the time interval from beginning of downslope time, or crater fill time to shut-off of torch or gun.

Upset Force is that exerted at the fayings surfaces during upset welding.

Welder Performance Qualification is the demonstration of a welder's ability to produce welds meeting prescribed standards. The document attesting that much is the Certification.

7 - Article - Welding Galvanized Steel

Galvanized Steels are coated or plated with zinc or its alloys for protection from atmospheric corrosion. As such they are a most common material, used for all sorts of applications. If possible, all welding should be performed before galvanizing.

Hot-dip batch galvanizing called also general galvanizing, a process applied by immersing cleaned steel assemblies into a molten zinc bath, is mostly used for finished items after all welding operations are performed.

In this case welding causes no problem, except that overlapping surfaces should be avoided, because molten zinc cannot effectively penetrate that narrow space. If the gap between two surfaces to be welded is less than 2.5 mm (3/32”), all edges must be completely seal-welded before galvanizing.

This process gives thicker protective layers than alternative coatings, but has limited malleability, meaning that the coating may flake if bent. The malleability of the coating is limited because of the brittle nature of some of the intermetallic phases (designated by Greek alphabetic letters), due to iron diffusion within the zinc.

Also the silicon content of filler metal for items designed to be hot-dip galvanized after welding should be limited to 0.04%, to produce a uniform galvanized coating. However for avoiding molten zinc embrittlement (see further down) silicon content should be less than 0.4%.

Some of the problems are discussed in the website page on Joining Galvanized Steels where soldering is proposed as an option, if the joint is freed from strength requirements, that are covered by interlocking using mechanical means.

Limited availability of sufficiently large baths of molten zinc may prevent the use of post welding galvanizing for assemblies of large dimensions. Because of that and for welding in the field, welding is sometimes required on preplated or precoated semifinished shapes.

Continuous processes, like electro galvanizing and continuous hot-dip galvanizing, provide thinner protective layers (than those from general galvanizing) of malleable coatings, using modified zinc alloys. They are applied at high speeds on sheet metal, profiles and other shapes.

These coatings, including also aluminum in their composition, are designed to allow that the products stand the deformation processes (bending, drawing, stretching) without flaking and peeling away.

Aluminum combines (alloys) with iron and zinc, forming an extremely thin ternary compound layer at the interface between coating and substrate. This thin layer inhibits further diffusion of iron within the rest of the zinc coating, which is the reason the resulting coating is extremely malleable.

In case there is a need to weld assemblies whose elements are already zinc plated, one should pay attention to a few details, in order to avoid causing cracks in the joints.

Resistance spot welding is performed on lightly zinc coated steel, where from the coating is not removed for welding. However the electrodes must be dressed at more frequent intervals than when welding uncoated steel.

In fact zinc from the steel coating, molten by the elevated welding temperature, is picked up at the electrode surface and builds up in a short time, creating a broader contact surface at the electrode face that reduces the current density in the weld zone.

With reference to welding schedules used for uncoated steel, compensation must be introduced by increasing both welding current and time by 25% to 50% because of reduced welding resistance at the electrode contact and increased heat flow.

The required increment depends on the actual zinc coating thickness, which is usually expressed in terms of weight per unit surface (g/m2 or oz/ft2).

Guidelines for establishing the suitability of galvanized products for resistance welding are published in ANSI/AWS D8.9 (Recommended Practices for Test Methods for evaluating the Resistance Spot Welding Behavior of Automotive Sheet Steel Materials). Click on AWS D8.9 to Order.

Arc welding can be used to join general galvanized steel, but care must be used to avoid cracking of the steel caused by intergranular penetration of zinc into the weld metal. This is called Embrittlement of steel by liquid (molten) zinc.

Although with proper arc manipulation one can blow away the vaporized zinc ahead of the weld and thus avoid zinc embrittlement, it should be preferable to remove the coating in advance by mechanical means. Argon is preferred as the shielding gas.

In Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW or Tig), one should prevent zinc contamination of the electrode by holding the torch at travel angle of 70° to the plate surface instead of the conventional 80° to 90°, and by increasing the gas flow rate without however causing turbulent flow.

Other recommendations are as follows: use the lowest current providing sufficient penetration, use a long arc, use manganese deoxidized filler metals with low silicon content, use light zinc coating.

For Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW or stick), the recommendations are: use covered electrode E6012 or E6013, depositing metal low in silicon (around 0.2%).

For groove welds use larger root openings than for uncoated steel, advance the arc onto the zinc coating ahead of the weld pool to melt and vaporize the coating, using a whipping motion with oscillations (forward-backward and to the sides) significantly reducing welding speed, to avoid porosity by entrapment of zinc vapor.

For fillet welds use similar tips as above but in addition avoid undercut by using low current and keeping a short arc.

In Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW or Mig) the use of 80% argon - 20% carbon dioxide may be preferable to 100% carbon dioxide. The amount of spatter can be reduced by reducing welding voltage and by increasing the inductance of the circuit, but still remains considerably more than for uncoated steels.

Filler metal ER70S-3 deoxidized wire should be used, with wider root openings than for uncoated steel, to compensate for lower penetration with weaving motion. Lower welding speeds are required, especially for T joints presenting more zinc on the flat face.

Depositing weld on the second side of a T weld should allow escape to zinc vapors to avoid trapping them. Fillet welds may be more difficult to make in flat position, unless extra root space allows zinc vapor to escape.

Whether removed before or during welding, zinc coating will be missing along and near the welds, compromising corrosion resistance, unless this is restored by other means. The area should be well cleaned and somewhat roughened by light abrasive blasting. Then it can be painted with zinc rich paint or thermal sprayed with zinc, with proper care for adequate coverage and adherence.

On zinc fumes see Issue 55 of Practical Welding Letter for March 2008. Click on PWL#055.

8 - Site Updating: Alkaline Cleaning, Welding Guide

The Pages of this Month cover two unrelated subjects. The first deals with one more cleaning process, Alkaline Cleaning, used for obtaining surfaces needing the cleanest condition suitable to receive plating and other demanding finishing treatments.

Selection and application of cleaning processes requires intimate knowledge of cleanliness requirements and also of the various types of industrial soils. Also updated information on stricter environmental regulations is needed to comply with current laws.

The other page is a Welding Guide, intended to provide orientation to beginners not yet familiar with the different processes. The more one knows about them, the easier it becomes finding the most suitable for any given situation.

New and updated pages are reported as they are published
in the Site Blog. Updates can be found also in Site Map and in Index Page.

Let us have your comments and feedback. Use the Contact Us Form. Promote this Website! Ask your friends to subscribe in time for getting issue 100!

9 - Short Items

9.1 - Dynamic Recrystallization (DRX) is a type of recrystallization process, found within the field of metallurgy. In dynamic recrystallization, as opposed to static recrystallization, the nucleation and growth of new grains occurs during deformation rather than afterwards as part of a separate heat treatment.

9.2 - An Environmental Chamber is an enclosure used to test the effects of specified environmental conditions on industrial products and material specimens.

9.3 - Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large scale structures. The term covers a wide range of work from large ships and bridges to precise engine parts and delicate jewelry. It therefore includes a correspondingly wide range of skills, processes, and tools. Metalworking is science, art, hobby, industry and trade.

9.4 - A Processing Map is an explicit graphic representation of the response of a material, in terms of microstructural mechanisms, to the imposed process parameters. A processing map exhibits domains where local maxima in efficiency occurs and regimes of flow instability. The domains may be identified in terms of microstructural mechanisms from their characteristic features and confirmed from microstructural observations.

Domains that represent dynamic recrystallization or superplastic deformation will impart good workability to the material and are chosen for processing depending on the particular metal working operation. Domains where microstructural damage or cracking may occur and regimes of flow instability are strictly avoided in selecting the processing parameters.

9.5 - Smelting is a form of extractive metallurgy; its main use is to produce a metal from its ore. Smelting uses heat and a chemical reducing agent to change the oxidation state of the metal ore.

9.6 - A Universal Testing Machine is used to test the tensile and the compressive strength of materials. It is named after the fact that it can perform many standard tensile and compression tests on materials, components, and structures.

10 - Explorations: beyond the Welder

Bleak Prospects for Avoiding Dangerous Global Warming
Sorry! Link removed by Sciencemag

Vacuum Tube: Kids under 2 Should Not Watch Television

The Network Central - What is:

How to Prevent Juvenile Crime?

Is Traffic Safety Any Of Your Concern?

11 - Contributions: Quality in Outsourcing

Some problems affecting Outsourcing of welding operations were briefly touched in our page on Outsource Welding.

A more thorough review of painful issues was recently addressed in an article focusing on assuring Quality in outsourced welded products, that was published in the Welding Journal, October 2011 edition, at page 42.

Welding supplier development is a demanding activity requiring serious attitude and substantial investment of time and resources if the outsourcing contribution is expected to be substantial and extended in time.

The main problems consist in assuring adequate in process welding inspection, verifying adherence to welding codes and evaluating consistence and workmanship of all professional levels on staff at the supplier's location.

The article explains that such development represents a concerted effort and long term commitment of the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) to qualify and improve the supplier's capability and performance, by assisting, educating and monitoring the external source to bring it and maintaining it up to quality requirements and cost-performance criteria.

The OEM must provide the experts to evaluate and correct the deficiencies requiring additional training and instruction.

The referenced article lists in much detail in different Tables the activities to be provided by the OEM personnel, the main Audit issues to be addressed, and even a long list of Lessons Learned during years of development of external suppliers.

Whoever is facing such problems, even if in the planning stages, is going to profit substantially from the experience and the advice offered in the said article, that should be studied in depth for evaluating the difficulties and the challenges affecting serious dealing with Outsourcing.

Interested readers are urged to seek this invaluable information.

12 - Testimonials

On Thu Oct 06 17:22:04 2011, the following results were submitted from the "Form 5" on

Name: Stephen Prince
E-mail Address: removed for security
Country: United States
Introduce Your Organization: Barber-Nichols
Describe Your Responsibility: Materials and Process Engineer

Questions and Feedback: Can you recommend [...]? Thank You.

Thank you kindly for this information, I am sure it will be useful.

Steve Prince

On Sunday Oct. 16, 2011 the following results were submitted from the "Form 5" on

E-mail Address: removed for security
Country: India
Introduce Your Organization: Dept. of Metallurgy & Materials, Faculty of Technology & Engineering, Kala Bhavan, M S University ,Vadodara, India
Describe Your Responsibility: Presently I am teaching Welding Technology subjects to post Graduate students at MS university of Baroda, Vadodara, India.
Earlier I worked for 30 years at Welding Research Institute, Tiruchirapalli, south India.

Questions and Feedback:

Dear Mr. Elia E. Levi,
I am regular reader of your PRACTICAL WELDING LETTER and I found it very useful for reference in situations to start with, i.e. it provides State of the art reference with respect to a given topic/problem.

To cite one example: there was a need of calculating preheat temperature and HAZ hardness for a C-Mn steel.
I got a good reference from PWL#079B namely
Welding and Weldability Calculation

Similarly, regarding P91, I got very good references in PWL#084 towards welding & heat treatments issues, which I found very useful for welding professionals and educators.

I find that with every issue more & more useful items are being added progressively including information pertaining to international events in welding & allied areas.

I sincerely compliment you for these efforts and wish your welding letter to become state of art reference letter for every welding technologist in the near future.

I wish you bring in the 100th issue the Latest developments in Narrow gap welding.

Best wishes,
Dr K L Rohira,
teaching post graduate students in Welding Technology
at MS University, Vadodara, India

[Note: - By sheer coincidence, it happens that the last issue of the Welding Journal (November 2011), publishes at page 32 an Article titled Advanced Technologies for Tandem SAW (Submerged Arc Welding) Narrow Groove Applications. Interested Readers are urged to seek it.

13 - Correspondence: a few Comments

13.1 - I repeat that to change e-mail address, I need BOTH the old and the new ones.

13.2 - Readers looking for a new job, write me with big hopes. Besides the pages addressing this subject in the website, I have no other magic contact. It seems however that qualified welders should have no difficulty in finding a suitable workplace of their liking, as there is a scarcity in this profession.

13.3 - I would appreciate if those asking for advice kindly comment on how the answer helped them. Unfortunately it is only quite seldom that I get this information.

14 - Bulletin Board

14.1 - Heat Treat 2011, 26th Conf. and Expo. co located with Gear Expo.
Oct. 31-Nov. 2. Duke Energy Convention Center, Cincinnati, Ohio

14.2 - ISTFA 2011 -
37th International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis
Nov. 13-17, 2011 - McEnery Convention Center - Hilton San Jose - San Jose, Calif.

14.3 - Fray Int'l Symposium on Metals and Material Processing
in a Clean Environment

Dec. 4-7 - Hilton Cancun Golf & Spa Resort

14.4 - Visit the ASM Webinar Archive

14.5 - How could SBI! help you?
Watch the following video and you will know...

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Please continue to browse down hereafter for the Mid October Bulletin.

Copyright (©) 2011, by Elia E. Levi and
All Rights Reserved

Mid Month Bulletin 67 - PWL#099B
November 2011

PWL#098B - Resources on Thermomechanical Processing (TMP), microstructure of metals, influence on mechanical properties, improvements of strength and toughness, precise deformation, careful heat treatment, refined microstructure, microalloyed steels, aluminum, titanium, nickel, zirconium, magnesium and much more...

Mid November Bulletin

November 2011 - Resources on Thermomechanical Processing - Bulletin #67

* * *


This Mid November Bulletin #67 is now integral with and appended to the regular PWL#099 publication. The subject of this Bulletin is a collection of Online Resources on Thermomechanical Processing as an extension to our Article on the same subject published above in Section 2.

The subject was briefly addressed in the past in Practical Welding Letter Nos. 15, 21, 22, 28, 65, 66, 89, and in our pages

Links to the Mid Month Bulletin Pages are listed in the regularly updated page on Welding Resources (Opens a new Window).

We urge our readers to Bookmark this page and to subscribe to our Welding Site Blog by clicking on the orange buttons under the NavBar in each Website page ( If you prefer not to subscribe, you may also click periodically on the Welding Blog button in the NavBar to see Updates.

The addresses reported hereafter were live and correct at the time of their publication. There is no guarantee that they will always be so, because they are administered by the sources themselves and are under their control.

Note: References to articles or other documents are given here in one of two forms. If the links are "live" (usually underlined or otherwise highlighted) they are operated with a click of the mouse.

If they are URL's (Uniform Resource Locator), which is the analogue of an address, they begin with "http://..." or "www.". These are not live and must be copied and pasted entirely into the browser (after having selected them with the mouse or otherwise). If they are long they may be displayed in two or more lines. In that case one has to care that the URL be copied completely in a single line without any space, and Enter.

If the information is important to you as we hope, you may save the selected pages in a suitable folder on your Computer for easy reference. You are welcome to forward this page to those of your friends who may profit of this information.

* * *


Thermomechanical processing

Thermomechanical Processing of Steels

Thermomechanical Processing

Advanced Structural Steels: Part Three

Thermomechanical Formation and Properties of Surfaces and Near Surface Regions

Thermomechanical processing of Advanced High Strength Steels in Production Hot Strip Rolling

New Developments in Physical Simulation of Thermomechanical Processing (Abstract)

Thermomechanical Processing of Steels (Conference - Advance Program) (32 pages)

Thermomechanical processing of 42CrMoS4 steel (Abstract)

The Effect of Thermomechanical Processing on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Ni, Nb and V-Bearing HSLA Steels (Abstract)

Recrystallization and grain growth during thermomechanical processing

Thermomechanical processing of low carbon, IF and IF high strength steels (Abstract)

Thermo-Mechanical Processing of Metallic Materials (Book)

Thermomechanical processing of microalloyed austenite (Book)

Thermomechanical Control Process

The formation of ultrafine grained steel microstructures through thermomechanical processing (Abstract)

Thermomechanical Processing of TRIP-assisted Multiphase Steels (Abstract)

Grain refinement through controlled thermomechanical processing (Abstract)

Effect of thermomechanical controlled processing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-C-Mn-Si multiphase steels (Abstract)

Thermomechanical processing of high Si-steel (Abstract)

Magnetic properties of high Si steel with variable ordering obtained through thermomechanical processing (Abstract)

The grain coarsening and subsequent transformation of austenite in the HSLA steel during high temperature thermomechanical processing. (Abstract)

Effect of Thermomechanical Processing Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of API X80 Steel

Typical Textures: Thermomechanical Processing (TMP) of Metals (Presentation - 30 frames)

Microstructure evolution of high-manganese steel during the thermomechanical processing (8 pages)

Evolution of precipitation state during Thermomechanical Processing of a X80 microalloyed steel (6 pages)


Microstructural Stability and Thermomechanical Processing of Boron Modified Beta Titanium Alloys

Microstructural Evolution of a Ti-6Al-4V Alloy during Thermomechanical Processing (Abstract)

Thermomechanical processing of Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr ti5al5mo5v3cr/

Thermomechanical processing: metallurgy, mechanics and modelling.

Improving the fatigue strength of Ti-6Al-4V by surface thermomechanical processing (Abstract)

Microstructural Stability and Thermomechanical Processing of Boron Modified Beta Titanium Alloys (Abstract)

The Thermomechanical Processing of Titanium and Ti-6Al-4V Thin Gage Sheet and Plate (4 pages)

Relationships between thermomechanical processing, microstructure and mechanical properties of the beta metastable Ti-LCB alloy (Abstract) thermomechanical-processing-microstructure-and-mechanical-properties-of-the/id/51092545.html


Thermomechanical Processing of Aluminum Alloy 2519 for Grain Refinement and Superplasticity (Abstract)

Thermo-mechanical Processing of 7075 Aluminum Alloys

Thermomechanical Treatments of Aluminum Alloys

Development of integrated methodology for thermomechanical processing of aluminum alloys (2 pages)

Observations of Strain Induced Precipitation during the Thermomechanical Processing of AA6111 Alloy (Abstract)

Thermomechanical Processing of Aluminum Alloy 2090 for Superplasticity (Abstract)

Thermomechanical Processing and Fatigue of Aluminum Alloys (Abstract)

Effect of thermomechanical processing on evolution of superplastic microstructures in Al–Cu–Zr alloys (Abstract)

New Development of Thermomechanical Processing (TMP) and High Volume Production Aluminium Wheel Suspension Arms (Abstract)

Grain refinement in 7075 aluminum by thermomechanical processing


Deformation and Recrystallization during Thermomechanical Processing of a Nickel-Base Superalloy Ingot Material (14 pages)

Modeling of Microstructure Evolution during the Thermomechanical Processing of Nickel-Base Superalloys

Application of thermomechanical processing for the improvement of boundary configurations in commercially pure nickel (Abstract)

Forging of Nickel-Base Alloys

High-Cycle Fatigue of Nickel-Based Superalloy ME3 at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures: Role of Grain-Boundary Engineering (9 pages)

Influence of thermomechanical processing on the superelastic properties of a Ni-rich Nitinol shape memory alloy (Abstract)


Effect of Thermomechanical Processing and Heat Treatment on the Properties of Zr-3Nb-1Sn Strip and Tubing (Abstract)

Effects of Thermomechanical Processing on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nb-1Zr-C Alloys (11 pages)

Thermomechanical Processing of Zirconium Alloys


Selected Readings: Thermomechanical Processing and Deformation of Mg Alloys


Thermomechanical processing and properties of niobium alloys (11 pages)

* * *

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