Microstructural Changes in FSW

The purpose of this Bulletin_91 is to provide links to Online Sources.

Friction Stir Welding is a quite successful solid state process used to weld similar and dissimilar metals.

The material flow inherent in this welding process is a fundamental component of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) that differentiates it from all other conventional welding techniques.

That page provides a few links on general aspects of the process, not specifically concerned with the evolution of microstructure and its influence on mechanical properties.

This List of Links was originated while trying to answer a question on how Microstructural Changes in Friction Stir welding affect mechanical properties.

The question and its temporary answer will be found in the next issue of PRACTICAL WELDING LETTER, PWL#125, as it is published in a few days.

Unfortunately, as one of the Researchers wrote in one of the Papers, the microstructural evolutions occurring during FSW are still not well understood.

Nevertheless useful applications of FSW are realized by suitable development programs, and thorough testing can assure the reliability of the joints performed.

Mid December Bulletin

December 2013 - Microstructural Evolution in FSW - Bulletin_91

PWL#124B - Bulletin_91 - Resources on how Microstructural Changes in Friction Stir welding (FSW) affect Mechanical Properties, Joint Strength in Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloys, Nano SiC reinforced AA6061, Microstructural evolution in the heat-affected zone, induced residual stresses, microstructural characterization, Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms, Computational Analysis, Modeling and much more...

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Friction stir welding induces a microstructural evolution that will influence the resulting mechanical properties.

The residual stresses induced during friction stir welding present a major influence on the final mechanical properties.

A detailed observation of the material microstructure in the joint section allows us to individuate a few different areas in metallographic sections.

The parent material (PM) is that not affected by deformation.
In the heat affected zone (HAZ), the material has undergone a thermal cycle which has modified the microstructure and/or the mechanical properties.

In the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ), the material has been plastically deformed by the tool, while the heat flux has also exerted some influence on the material.

At the core of the welding, the nugget is found out, called Stir Zone (SZ) or Dynamically Recrystallised Zone (DXZ).
It is a volume (appearing as an area in the section) in which the original grain and subgrain boundaries were replaced with fine, equiaxed recrystallized grains, characterized by a nominal dimension of a few microns.

The Online Resources listed in this Bulletin_91 offer a wide range of publications presenting information on the above matters.

The references published in this Bulletin_91 were selected to provide useful knowledge to our readers.

The addresses reported hereafter in this Bulletin_91 were live and correct at the time of their publication.

There is no guarantee that they will always be so, because they are administered by the sources themselves and are under their control.

Note: References to articles or other documents are given here in one of two forms.

If the links are "live" (usually underlined or otherwise highlighted) they are operated with a click of the mouse.

If they are URL's (Uniform Resource Locator), which is the analogue of an address, they begin with "http://..." or "www.".

These are not live and must be copied and pasted entirely into the browser (after having selected them with the mouse or otherwise).

If they are long they may be displayed in two or more lines.

In that case one has to care that the URL be copied completely in a single line without any space, and Enter.

If the information is important to you, you may save the downloaded selected pages in a suitable folder on your Computer for easy reference.

You are welcome to forward this Bulletin_91 Resources page to those of your friends who may profit of this information.

Resources on Microstructural Evolution in Friction Stir Welding

Friction stir welding

Friction Stir Welding

Friction Stir Welding of Steel: Part Two

Microstructural Changes Determining Joint Strength in Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Alloys

Effect of Microstructural changes on Mechanical properties of Friction stir welded Nano SiC reinforced AA6061 composite (9 pages)

Microstructural evolution in the heat-affected zone of a friction stir weld
Research Gate 1.

Effect of Friction Stir Welding on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Copper Alloy

Influence of the microstructural changes and induced residual stresses on tensile properties of wrought magnesium alloy friction stir welds

Microstructural Evolution during Friction Stir Welding of
AlSi1MgMn alloy


Microstructural evolution during friction stir welding of near-alpha titanium

Friction Stir Welding of Al 6061 Alloy (12 pages)

Friction Stir Welding of Advanced Materials: Challenges (7 pages)

Friction-stir welding: microstructural characterization
Research Gate 2.

Optimum Rotation Speed for the Friction Stir Welding of Pure Copper

Microstructural Changes in Aluminium Alloys by Friction Stir Processing

Effect of Friction Welding Parameters on Mechanical and
Microstructural Properties of Dissimilar AISI 1010-ASTM B22
(Steel-Bronze) Joints


Effects of friction stir welding on microstructure of 7075 aluminum

Microstructural Development in Friction Stir Welding (2 pages)

Initial Microstructural Evolution during Friction Stir Welding

Microstructural Characterizations of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welds
(5 pages)

Microstructural Features

Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions. (Abstract)

Computational Analysis of Material Flow During Friction Stir Welding of AA5059 Aluminum Alloys (17 pages)

Modeling of AA5083 Material-Microstructure Evolution During Butt Friction-Stir Welding (13 pages)

Computational Modeling of the Friction Stir Welding Process (FSW) and of the Performance of FSW Joints (Thesis, 122 pages)

Heat Generation during Plunge Stage in Friction Stir Welding
(8 pages)

Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP steel (173 pages)

Microstructure Evolution in Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloys
(8 pages)

Advances in Friction Stir Welding for Aerospace Applications
(14 pages)

Sample Records for the Topic Welding Friction Stir from Science.gov. (25 pages)

Residual Stress Measurements in a Thick, Dissimilar Aluminum-Alloy Friction Stir Weld (23 pages)


Applications: Friction Stir Weld
(Map of the Longitudinal Residual Stress)


Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Materials: An Overview (6 pages)

Microstructural Evolution of Friction Stir Processed Ti-6Al-4V
(Thesis, 44 pages)

Microstructural Evolution of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloys - Sections 1 & 2


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