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Friction-surfacing, is a modified friction welding.

It is a solid state process whereby layers of various metals are deposited upon a metallic substrate.

Generally the consumable material in form of round bar is rotated and pressed against the substrate material.

This last one is given a translational movement.

An Article on Friction Surfacing, including a few reference Sources, was published (2) in Issue 49 of Practical Welding Letter for September 2007.
To see the article click on PWL#049.

A plasticized layer with fine grained, hot-worked microstructure is deposited on the substrate without melting.

Dilution is almost absent, Heat Affected Zone is narrow, no cracking or other defects are developed.

Friction-surfacing is an amazing development

Friction-surfacing is performed on specially set up dedicated machines, therefore the process is automatic and repeatable, independent on operator skill.

The process is applicable on flat or circular surfaces, and also on precise locations like blade tips.

Depending on the materials, different parameters, including consumable diameter, rotation speed, applied force and traverse rate must be developed for Friction-surfacing.

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The thickness of the deposited layer is influenced by the type of consumable.

Materials resisting to plastic deformation at elevated temperatures like nickel base alloys, deposit layers of 0.5 to 1 mm (0.02 to 0.04").

Austenitic stainless steel can deposit up to about 3 mm on mild steel.

Aluminum alloys can leave deposits up to 6 mm thick (0.24").

The main advantage of Friction surfacing is that it permits deposit-substrate combinations that would be incompatible with fusion welding processes.

One of the disadvantages is the lack of good bond at the sides of the deposit, because of locally reduced pressure.

For covering larger areas the process is repeated by depositing beads side by side, possibly machining away the weakly bonded width between runs.

With proper consumables, Friction surfacing can produce deposits presenting good wear or corrosion resistant properties.

The following combinations were successfully applied:

  • Inco 625 onto austenitic stainless steel
  • Austenitic stainless steel onto mild steel
  • Stellite 6, Stellite 12 and Hastelloy onto austenitic stainless steel
  • Titanium alloy onto Titanium Alloy
  • Aluminum alloy onto aluminum alloy
  • Hardfacing steel like D2 and H13 onto medium carbon steel

Depending on production constraints, in certain situations Friction-surfacing can be the most cost effective solution that would be advisable to explore.

Watch the following Video on

Friction Surfacing

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